Abstract

In this paper, optical mode characteristics of hollow optical fibers are thoroughly analyzed using finite element method. The guided modes along the ring core and cladding are identified and their optical properties are investigated. For the core modes, we investigated intensity distribution, higher order mode cutoff, propagation constant, and chromatic dispersion. The mode coupling between the fundamental mode and the excited modes in both core modes and cladding modes are discussed for applications in mode-coupling devices.

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2008

M. J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Optical transmission fiber design evolution," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1079-1092 (2008).

Z. Zhi-Guo, Z. Fang-Di, Z. M. Ye Pei-Da, "Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core," Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 167-174 (2008).

W. Ha, W. Jung, J. Kim, W. Shin, I. Sohn, D. Ko, J. Lee, K. Oh, "Fabrication and characterization of a broadband long-period-grating on a hollow optical fiber with femtosecond laser pulses," J Kor. Phys. Soc. 53, 3814-3817 (2008).

2006

K.-W. Chung, J. Shin, S. Yin, "Accurate hybrid mode analysis of hollow optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 45, 065008-1-065008-7 (2006).

Y. Jung, S. R. Han, S. Kim, U. C. Paek, K. Oh, "Versatile control of geometric birefringence in elliptical hollow optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 13, 2681-2683 (2006).

2005

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, J. W. Lee, "Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 524-532 (2005).

E. S. Barhoum, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, "Optical modeling of an ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, a preliminary study of confocal versus non-confocal detection," Opt. Exp. 13, 7548-7562 (2005).

2004

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practival handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

2003

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, W. Xiaoyan, "Scalar model and exact vectorial description for the design analysis of hollow optical fiber components," Opt. Commun. 228, 285-293 (2003).

2002

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, O. A. Kolevatova, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, A. V. Shcherbakov, A. M. Zheltikov, "Waveguide modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers," JETP Lett. 76, 341-345 (2002).

2001

S. Choi, K. Oh, W. Shin, U. C. Ryu, "A low loss mode converter based on the adiabatically tapered hollow optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 37, 823-825 (2001).

2000

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, "Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519-521 (2000).

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, A. Bjarklev, "Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 96-98 (2000).

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).

1999

R. F. Cregan et al., "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, D. Gibson, "Transmission properties of hollow glass waveguides for the delivery of CO2 surgical laser power," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 948-953 (1999).

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).

1997

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

1991

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

1990

S. Sudo, I. Yokoyama, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, "Optical fiber with sharp optical absorptions by vibrational-rotational absorption of C2H2 molecules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 128-131 (1990).

1986

K. S. Chiang, "Finite-element analysis of weakly guiding fibers with arbitrary refractive-index distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 980-990 (1986).

1985

K. S. Chiang, "Finite-element analysis of optical fibres with iterative treatment of the infinite 2-D space," Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 381-391 (1985).

1984

1981

K. Okamoto, T. Hosake, T. Edahiro, "Sterss analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123-2129 (1981).

1973

A. Yariv, "Coupled mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

1965

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

S. Choi, K. Oh, W. Shin, U. C. Ryu, "A low loss mode converter based on the adiabatically tapered hollow optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 37, 823-825 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv, "Coupled mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, D. Gibson, "Transmission properties of hollow glass waveguides for the delivery of CO2 surgical laser power," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 948-953 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Sudo, I. Yokoyama, H. Yasaka, T. Ikegami, "Optical fiber with sharp optical absorptions by vibrational-rotational absorption of C2H2 molecules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 128-131 (1990).

Y. Jeong, B. Yang, B. Lee, H. S. Seo, S. Choi, K. Oh, "Electrically controllable long-period liquid crystal fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 519-521 (2000).

J Kor. Phys. Soc.

W. Ha, W. Jung, J. Kim, W. Shin, I. Sohn, D. Ko, J. Lee, K. Oh, "Fabrication and characterization of a broadband long-period-grating on a hollow optical fiber with femtosecond laser pulses," J Kor. Phys. Soc. 53, 3814-3817 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, G. Vienne, H. R. Simonsen, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. W. Skovgaard, J. R. Folkenberg, A. Bjarklev, "Air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers: Spectral properties, macrobending loss, and practival handling," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 11-15 (2004).

K. S. Chiang, "Finite-element analysis of weakly guiding fibers with arbitrary refractive-index distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 980-990 (1986).

M. J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Optical transmission fiber design evolution," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1079-1092 (2008).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, J. W. Lee, "Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 524-532 (2005).

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quantum Electron.

K. Okamoto, T. Hosake, T. Edahiro, "Sterss analysis of optical fibers by a finite element method," J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2123-2129 (1981).

JETP Lett.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, O. A. Kolevatova, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, A. V. Shcherbakov, A. M. Zheltikov, "Waveguide modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers," JETP Lett. 76, 341-345 (2002).

Nature

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

P. R. Chaudhuri, C. Lu, W. Xiaoyan, "Scalar model and exact vectorial description for the design analysis of hollow optical fiber components," Opt. Commun. 228, 285-293 (2003).

Opt. Eng.

K.-W. Chung, J. Shin, S. Yin, "Accurate hybrid mode analysis of hollow optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 45, 065008-1-065008-7 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

E. S. Barhoum, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, "Optical modeling of an ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, a preliminary study of confocal versus non-confocal detection," Opt. Exp. 13, 7548-7562 (2005).

Opt. Fiber. Technol.

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers, by the finite element method," Opt. Fiber. Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).

Opt. Laser Technol.

Z. Zhi-Guo, Z. Fang-Di, Z. M. Ye Pei-Da, "Gas sensing properties of index-guided PCF with air-core," Opt. Laser Technol. 40, 167-174 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

K. S. Chiang, "Finite-element analysis of optical fibres with iterative treatment of the infinite 2-D space," Opt. Quantum Electron. 17, 381-391 (1985).

Science

R. F. Cregan et al., "Single-mode photonic bandgap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

Other

K. Kawano, T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001) pp. 59-68.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007) pp. 110-155.

M. Koshiba, H. Saitoh, M. Eguchi, K. Hirayama, "A simple scalar finite element approach to optical rib waveguides," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. (1992) pp. 166-171.

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