Abstract

In this paper, we present a directional bend sensor based on a long period grating (LPG) formed by introducing periodic grooves along one side of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a focused ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser beam. A bend sensitivity of 2.26 nm/m$^{-1}$ within a range of $-$5 $\sim +$5 m$^{-1}$ is experimentally demonstrated. Numerical simulation suggests that the directional response is the result of asymmetric cladding geometry resulted from collapse and/or deformation of air holes and asymmetric material-index modulation caused by one-sided illumination of the ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser beam. The sensitivity could be further enhanced by increasing the area of the air-silica photonic crystal cladding and optimizing the size of individual air holes. The easy fabrication process and good linear response of the proposed sensor make it a suitable candidate for structural shape sensing in harsh environments.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
  2. C.-Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, G.-W. Chern, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).
  3. H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, "Long period fibre gratings for structural bend sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773-1775 (1998).
  4. U. L. Block, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, M. M. Fejer, "Origin of apparent resonance mode splitting in bent long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1027-1034 (2006).
  5. T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130-135 (2004).
  6. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).
  7. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond Laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3147-3154 (2006).
  8. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding," Electron. Lett. 41, 59-60 (2005).
  9. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).
  10. C. L. Zhao, L. Xiao, J. Ju, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, "Strain and temperature characteristics of a long-period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber and its application as a temperature-insensitive strain sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 220-227 (2008).
  11. Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, "Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 31, 3414-3416 (2006).
  12. L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Fusion splicing small-core photonic crystal fibers and single-mode fibers by repeated arc discharges," Opt. Lett. 32, 115-117 (2007).
  13. K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).
  14. Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, "Glass structure changes in ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$-laser writing of long-period fiber gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 857-863 (2009).
  15. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  16. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).
  17. W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, "Modal coupling in surface-corrugated long-period-grating fiber tapers," Opt. Lett. 33, 717-719 (2008).
  18. H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, "${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).
  19. W. D. Pilkey, Peterson's Stress Concentration Factors (Wiley, 1999).

2009 (2)

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, "Glass structure changes in ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$-laser writing of long-period fiber gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 857-863 (2009).

H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, "${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

2008 (2)

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, "Modal coupling in surface-corrugated long-period-grating fiber tapers," Opt. Lett. 33, 717-719 (2008).

C. L. Zhao, L. Xiao, J. Ju, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, "Strain and temperature characteristics of a long-period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber and its application as a temperature-insensitive strain sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 220-227 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

Y. P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, "Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 31, 3414-3416 (2006).

U. L. Block, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, M. M. Fejer, "Origin of apparent resonance mode splitting in bent long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1027-1034 (2006).

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond Laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3147-3154 (2006).

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

2005 (1)

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding," Electron. Lett. 41, 59-60 (2005).

2004 (2)

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130-135 (2004).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

2001 (1)

C.-Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, G.-W. Chern, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, "Long period fibre gratings for structural bend sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773-1775 (1998).

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, "Long period fibre gratings for structural bend sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773-1775 (1998).

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Long period grating directional bend sensor based on asymmetric index modification of cladding," Electron. Lett. 41, 59-60 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical Fiber," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130-135 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond Laser," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3147-3154 (2006).

U. L. Block, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, M. M. Fejer, "Origin of apparent resonance mode splitting in bent long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1027-1034 (2006).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

C.-Y. Lin, L. A. Wang, G.-W. Chern, "Corrugated long-period fiber gratings as strain, torsion, and bending sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1159-1168 (2001).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, "Glass structure changes in ${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$-laser writing of long-period fiber gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 857-863 (2009).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

C. L. Zhao, L. Xiao, J. Ju, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, "Strain and temperature characteristics of a long-period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber and its application as a temperature-insensitive strain sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 220-227 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, "${\hbox {CO}}_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

W. D. Pilkey, Peterson's Stress Concentration Factors (Wiley, 1999).

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

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