Abstract

The rejection band of a long-period fiber grating written in a heavily twisted single-mode fiber by a CO$_{2}$ laser can split into two, when the twist applied to the fiber is removed after the writing of the grating. We attribute the wavelength-splitting effect to the generation of a rotary frozen-in torsion strain along the fiber in the writing process. The wavelength split increases with the twist rate and the effect is independent of the polarization state of light. We present a simple expression to estimate the wavelength split, which agrees reasonably well with the experimental results. We also measure the temperature and torsion characteristics of the grating. Such a grating could find applications as an optical filter or a temperature-insensitive torsion sensor.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
  2. K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Long-period gratings for application in optical communications," Proc. 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006) (2006) pp. 128-133.
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  5. Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Z. Hu, "Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communication," Opt. Commun. 229, 209-221 (2004).
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2009

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, Y. Song, K. S. Chiang, "Highly sensitive temperature-independent strain sensor based on a long-period fiber grating with a CO$_{2}$-laser engraved rotary structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 543-545 (2009).

2008

2007

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, Y. Song, "Strain sensor without temperature compensation based on A LPFG with strongly rotary refractive index modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1132-1133 (2007).

2006

V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2298 (2006).

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, G. D. Peng, "Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO$_2$ laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105-151108 (2006).

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

2004

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 10, 300-311 (2004).

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Z. Hu, "Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communication," Opt. Commun. 229, 209-221 (2004).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelength of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO$_{2}$ laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1464-1466 (2004).

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO$_2$ laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1464-1466 (2004).

2003

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 49-61 (2003).

2001

1999

1998

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_2$ laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, G. D. Peng, "Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO$_2$ laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151105-151108 (2006).

Electron. Lett.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, J. L. Wang, Y. Song, "Strain sensor without temperature compensation based on A LPFG with strongly rotary refractive index modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1132-1133 (2007).

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO$_2$ laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34, 302-303 (1998).

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 10, 300-311 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, Y. Song, K. S. Chiang, "Highly sensitive temperature-independent strain sensor based on a long-period fiber grating with a CO$_{2}$-laser engraved rotary structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 543-545 (2009).

V. Grubsky, J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2299-2298 (2006).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 49-61 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Z. Hu, "Novel long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses and applications in optical fiber communication," Opt. Commun. 229, 209-221 (2004).

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, A. I. Dachevski, "Residual stress profiles in optical fibers determined by the two-waveplate-compensator method," Opt. Commun. 265, 29-32 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

Other

K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Long-period gratings for application in optical communications," Proc. 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006) (2006) pp. 128-133.

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