Abstract

This paper describes the fiber optic loop buffer-based switch in which contention is resolved in the time and wavelength domain. In the loop buffer, tunable wavelength converters (TWCs) are placed in place of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) as in conventional loop buffer-based architectures. The placement of TWCs inside the buffer facilitate simultaneous read/write operation and dynamic re-allocation of wavelengths and improves the switch performance significantly. It is a well known fact that the re-circulating type buffer structure suffers from circulation limit (maximum revolutions that data can take in the buffer) due to the loss and noise accumulation in the switch. This paper presents a mathematical model to obtain a maximum number of allowed circulations of the data in loop buffer-based switch architecture. This model is derived for various configurations (transparent, noisy, and regenerative) of TWC. The detrimental effect of crosstalk and four wave mixing are shown, and the affect of dispersion on the maximum allowed bit rate is discussed. The minimum length of the loop is also evaluated. Finally, the bounded region is shown (bit rate versus number of wavelengths graph) where memory can work efficiently.

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  1. R. S. Tucker, W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82 B, 254-264 (1999).
  2. D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).
  3. Y. Shmimazu, M. Tsukada, "Ultrafast photonic ATM switch with optical output buffers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 265-272 (1992).
  4. F. S. Choa, X. Zhao, Y. Xiuqin, J. Lin, J. P. Zhang, Y. Gu, G. Ru, G. Zhang, L. Li, H. Xiang, H. Hadimioglu, H. J. Chao, "An optical packet switch based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 994-1013 (2005).
  5. G. Bendelli, M. Burizo, M. Cdzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delore, "Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer," Proc. OFC Conf. (1995) Paper WJ4 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-1995-WJ4UT.
  6. Y. N. Singh, A. Kushwaha, S. K. Bose, "Exact and analytical modelling of a FLBM based all-optical packet switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 719-726 (2003).
  7. N. Verma, R. Srivastava, Y. N. Singh, "Novel design modification proposal for all optical fiber loop buffer switch," Proc. Photonics Conf. (2002) pp. 181.
  8. R. Srivastava, R. K. Singh, Y. N. Singh, "WDM-based optical packet switch architectures," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 94-105 (2008).
  9. D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).
  10. M. Naik, Y. N. Singh, "Simulation of fiber loop buffer memory of all-optical packet switch," Proc. NCC Conf. (2002) pp. 50-54.
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  12. M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 308-313 (2000).
  13. N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).
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  15. E. Iannone, R. Sabella, "Analysis of wavelength-switched high-density WDM networks employing wavelength conversion by Four-Wave-Mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1579-1592 (1995).
  16. H. Simos, A. Argyris, D. Kanakidis, E. Roditi, A. Ikiades, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of wavelength converters based on FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 566-568 (2003).
  17. R. Srivastava, R. K. Singh, Y. N. Singh, "Regenerator based fiber optic loop memory," Proc. IEEE TENCON Region 10 Conf. Taiwan, R.O.C. (2000) paper no. WeOE-O2.3 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4428878.
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  19. W. Zeiler, F. D. Pasquale, P. Bayvel, J. E. Midwinter, "Modeling of four wave mixing and gain peaking in amplified WDM optical communication systems and networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1933-1942 (1996).
  20. A. V. Ramprasad, M. Meenakshi, "Performance of NRZ, RZ, CSRZ, and VSB-RZ modulation formats in the presence of four-wave mixing effect in DWDM optical systems," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 6, 146-156 (2007).
  21. E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Brown, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," J. Opt. Switch. Netw. 5, 10-18 (2008).
  22. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
  23. Y. Chai, L. Wang, F. Choa, "Signal stabilization of WDM loop memory with gain clamped EDFA," Proc. LEOS IEEE Annu. Meet. (1999) pp. 21-22.
  24. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical networks: A practical perspective, Harcourt Asia PTE, Ltd.Singapore (2000).

2008

R. Srivastava, R. K. Singh, Y. N. Singh, "WDM-based optical packet switch architectures," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 94-105 (2008).

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Brown, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," J. Opt. Switch. Netw. 5, 10-18 (2008).

2007

A. V. Ramprasad, M. Meenakshi, "Performance of NRZ, RZ, CSRZ, and VSB-RZ modulation formats in the presence of four-wave mixing effect in DWDM optical systems," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 6, 146-156 (2007).

2005

F. S. Choa, X. Zhao, Y. Xiuqin, J. Lin, J. P. Zhang, Y. Gu, G. Ru, G. Zhang, L. Li, H. Xiang, H. Hadimioglu, H. J. Chao, "An optical packet switch based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 994-1013 (2005).

2003

Y. N. Singh, A. Kushwaha, S. K. Bose, "Exact and analytical modelling of a FLBM based all-optical packet switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 719-726 (2003).

H. Simos, A. Argyris, D. Kanakidis, E. Roditi, A. Ikiades, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of wavelength converters based on FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 566-568 (2003).

2000

M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 308-313 (2000).

1999

R. S. Tucker, W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82 B, 254-264 (1999).

1998

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

1996

W. Zeiler, F. D. Pasquale, P. Bayvel, J. E. Midwinter, "Modeling of four wave mixing and gain peaking in amplified WDM optical communication systems and networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1933-1942 (1996).

1995

E. Iannone, R. Sabella, "Performance evaluation of an optical multi-carrier network using wavelength converters based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 312-324 (1995).

E. Iannone, R. Sabella, "Analysis of wavelength-switched high-density WDM networks employing wavelength conversion by Four-Wave-Mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1579-1592 (1995).

1994

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Tobu, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four wave mixing in multi-channel transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).

1992

Y. Shmimazu, M. Tsukada, "Ultrafast photonic ATM switch with optical output buffers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 265-272 (1992).

1991

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

1989

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Simos, A. Argyris, D. Kanakidis, E. Roditi, A. Ikiades, D. Syvridis, "Regenerative properties of wavelength converters based on FWM in a semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 566-568 (2003).

IEICE Trans. Commun.

R. S. Tucker, W. D. Zhong, "Photonic packet switching: An overview," IEICE Trans. Commun. E82 B, 254-264 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol.

D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

Y. Shmimazu, M. Tsukada, "Ultrafast photonic ATM switch with optical output buffers," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 265-272 (1992).

F. S. Choa, X. Zhao, Y. Xiuqin, J. Lin, J. P. Zhang, Y. Gu, G. Ru, G. Zhang, L. Li, H. Xiang, H. Hadimioglu, H. J. Chao, "An optical packet switch based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 994-1013 (2005).

Y. N. Singh, A. Kushwaha, S. K. Bose, "Exact and analytical modelling of a FLBM based all-optical packet switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 719-726 (2003).

M. Karasek, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, M. Menif, "Gain stabilization in gain clamped EDFA cascades fed by WDM burst-mode packet traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 308-313 (2000).

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

E. Iannone, R. Sabella, "Performance evaluation of an optical multi-carrier network using wavelength converters based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 312-324 (1995).

E. Iannone, R. Sabella, "Analysis of wavelength-switched high-density WDM networks employing wavelength conversion by Four-Wave-Mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1579-1592 (1995).

K. Inoue, K. Nakanishi, K. Oda, H. Tobu, "Crosstalk and power penalty due to fiber four wave mixing in multi-channel transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1423-1439 (1994).

W. Zeiler, F. D. Pasquale, P. Bayvel, J. E. Midwinter, "Modeling of four wave mixing and gain peaking in amplified WDM optical communication systems and networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1933-1942 (1996).

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).

J. Opt. Netw.

J. Opt. Switch. Netw.

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Brown, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," J. Opt. Switch. Netw. 5, 10-18 (2008).

OSA J. Opt. Netw.

A. V. Ramprasad, M. Meenakshi, "Performance of NRZ, RZ, CSRZ, and VSB-RZ modulation formats in the presence of four-wave mixing effect in DWDM optical systems," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 6, 146-156 (2007).

Proc. IEEE

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).

Other

M. Naik, Y. N. Singh, "Simulation of fiber loop buffer memory of all-optical packet switch," Proc. NCC Conf. (2002) pp. 50-54.

E. Deservire, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers Principle and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

G. Bendelli, M. Burizo, M. Cdzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delore, "Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer," Proc. OFC Conf. (1995) Paper WJ4 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-1995-WJ4UT.

N. Verma, R. Srivastava, Y. N. Singh, "Novel design modification proposal for all optical fiber loop buffer switch," Proc. Photonics Conf. (2002) pp. 181.

R. Srivastava, R. K. Singh, Y. N. Singh, "Regenerator based fiber optic loop memory," Proc. IEEE TENCON Region 10 Conf. Taiwan, R.O.C. (2000) paper no. WeOE-O2.3 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4428878.

Y. Chai, L. Wang, F. Choa, "Signal stabilization of WDM loop memory with gain clamped EDFA," Proc. LEOS IEEE Annu. Meet. (1999) pp. 21-22.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical networks: A practical perspective, Harcourt Asia PTE, Ltd.Singapore (2000).

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