Abstract

Differential phase shift keying are today considered key solutions for the WDM long-haul transmission infrastructure, and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for its demodulation needs to have very low polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf). MZIs based on silica-based planar lightwave circuits can offer a compact reliable demodulator, but it suffers from a large PDf. In particular, they exhibit a large wavelength dependence on the PDf. It results in a narrow wavelength range where the PDf is sufficiently low, and this limits the operating range of the demodulator. In this paper, we propose a novel method for reducing the PDf over a wide wavelength range. We reveal that the large wavelength dependence of the PDf is due to both the polarization crosstalk of the half-wave plate and the birefringence of the waveguide. Using a mathematical approach, we derived a way to suppress the PDf by controlling the birefringence and the direction of the optic axis of the half-wave plate in the MZI. We confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method experimentally and achieved a low PDF of $< 1\%$ for an FSR of over 140 nm in the wavelength.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J. Y. C. Hsieh, C. Ai, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, "Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK signals," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 827.
  2. Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).
  3. H. Takahashi, "Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: Present and future," Proc. SPIE (2002) pp. 520-531.
  4. M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 895-902 (2004).
  5. A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1814 (1992).
  6. T. Watanabe, S. Sohma, T. Goh, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Compact 8$\,\times\,$8 silica-based PLC switch with compressed arrangement," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 991.
  7. Y. Hashizume, Y. Inoue, T. Kominato, T. Shibata, M. Okuno, "Low-PDL 16-channel variable optical attenuator array using silica-based PLC," Proc. OFC (2004) pp. 23-27.
  8. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  9. E. Golovchenko, L. Rahman, B. Bakhshi, D. Kovsh, F. Idrovo, S. Abbott, "Field deployment of WDM 10 Gb/s capacity over 10 757 km of reconfigured portion of SAm-1 cable system," OFC (2007).
  10. H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).
  11. M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).
  12. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).
  13. Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Operation range enhancement of silica waveguide 43 Gbit/s DQPSK demodulator by using stress release grooves," Proc. LEOS (2008) pp. 449.
  14. C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2075-2077 (2004).
  15. Y. Nasu, M. Oguma, H. Takahashi, Y. Inoue, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Polarization insensitive MZI-based DQPSK demodulator with asymmetric half-wave plate configuration," Proc. OFC (2008) pp. 1-3.
  16. Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Silica waveguide DQPSK demodulator with wide operation range enhanced by using stress release grooves," Photon. Technol. Lett. .

2007 (2)

Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).

2005 (2)

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (2)

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2075-2077 (2004).

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 895-902 (2004).

1994 (1)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).

1992 (1)

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1814 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Oguma, "Analysing the penalty induced by PD of MZI in DQPSKk receiver using novel measuring technique," Electron. Lett. 43, 122 (2007).

Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, M. Abe, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence suppression of UV-induced refractive index with grooves in silica-based planar lightwave circuits," Electron. Lett. 41, 1118 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 625 (1994).

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, K. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing lattice-form structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 895-902 (2004).

A. Takagi, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Silica-based waveguide-type wavelength-insensitive couplers (WINC's) with series-tapered coupling structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1814 (1992).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. K. Lizý, M. Faucher, E. Jarry, P. Ouellette, E. Villeneuve, A. Wetter, F. Seguin, "Phase-tunable low-loss, S-, C-, and L-band DPSK and DQPSK demodulator," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1886 (2007).

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. S. Patel, S. Chandrasekhar, A. E. White, "Polarization-insensitive planar lightwave circuit dual-rate Mach-Zehnder delay-interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2075-2077 (2004).

Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Silica waveguide DQPSK demodulator with wide operation range enhanced by using stress release grooves," Photon. Technol. Lett. .

Other (7)

J. Y. C. Hsieh, C. Ai, V. Chien, X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, "Athermal demodulator for 42.7-Gb/s DPSK signals," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 827.

Y. Nasu, M. Oguma, H. Takahashi, Y. Inoue, H. Kawakami, E. Yoshida, "Polarization insensitive MZI-based DQPSK demodulator with asymmetric half-wave plate configuration," Proc. OFC (2008) pp. 1-3.

Y. Sakamaki, Y. Nasu, T. Hashimoto, K. Hattori, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Operation range enhancement of silica waveguide 43 Gbit/s DQPSK demodulator by using stress release grooves," Proc. LEOS (2008) pp. 449.

H. Takahashi, "Planar lightwave circuit devices for optical communication: Present and future," Proc. SPIE (2002) pp. 520-531.

E. Golovchenko, L. Rahman, B. Bakhshi, D. Kovsh, F. Idrovo, S. Abbott, "Field deployment of WDM 10 Gb/s capacity over 10 757 km of reconfigured portion of SAm-1 cable system," OFC (2007).

T. Watanabe, S. Sohma, T. Goh, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, "Compact 8$\,\times\,$8 silica-based PLC switch with compressed arrangement," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 991.

Y. Hashizume, Y. Inoue, T. Kominato, T. Shibata, M. Okuno, "Low-PDL 16-channel variable optical attenuator array using silica-based PLC," Proc. OFC (2004) pp. 23-27.

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