Abstract

Flip-flop operations of anti-resonant reflecting- optical-waveguide (ARROW) vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) under the influence of undesired high-order injection modes are investigated theoretically. Three types of flip-flop operations, namely: 1) flip-flop triggered by optical injection, 2) inverse flip-flop triggered by optical injection, and 3) flip-flop triggered by injection current, are to be considered in the studies. It is found that with the presence of ARROW, all three types of optical flip-flop are insensitive to high-order injection modes, and stable single-mode flip-flop can be maintained in the operation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).
  2. P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
  3. T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).
  4. H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Cascadable all-optical inverter based on a nonlinear vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1884-1886 (2007).
  5. A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).
  6. D. N. Maywar, K. P. Solomon, G. P. Agrawal, "Remote optical control of an optical flip-flop," Opt. Lett. 32, 3260-3262 (2007).
  7. D. Song, V. Gauss, H. Zhang, M. Gross, P. Wen, S. Esener, "All-optical flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2969-2971 (2007).
  8. N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).
  9. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).
  10. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).
  11. S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).
  12. C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).
  13. L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).
  14. P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
  15. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
  16. C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

2009

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).

2007

H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Cascadable all-optical inverter based on a nonlinear vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1884-1886 (2007).

D. Song, V. Gauss, H. Zhang, M. Gross, P. Wen, S. Esener, "All-optical flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2969-2971 (2007).

D. N. Maywar, K. P. Solomon, G. P. Agrawal, "Remote optical control of an optical flip-flop," Opt. Lett. 32, 3260-3262 (2007).

C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).

2006

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).

N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).

2005

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).

2004

C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).

2003

S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).

2002

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

2000

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).

1999

P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).

1992

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).

Electron. Lett.

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).

S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).

N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

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