Abstract

Flip-flop operations of anti-resonant reflecting- optical-waveguide (ARROW) vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) under the influence of undesired high-order injection modes are investigated theoretically. Three types of flip-flop operations, namely: 1) flip-flop triggered by optical injection, 2) inverse flip-flop triggered by optical injection, and 3) flip-flop triggered by injection current, are to be considered in the studies. It is found that with the presence of ARROW, all three types of optical flip-flop are insensitive to high-order injection modes, and stable single-mode flip-flop can be maintained in the operation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).
  2. P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).
  3. T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).
  4. H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Cascadable all-optical inverter based on a nonlinear vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1884-1886 (2007).
  5. A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).
  6. D. N. Maywar, K. P. Solomon, G. P. Agrawal, "Remote optical control of an optical flip-flop," Opt. Lett. 32, 3260-3262 (2007).
  7. D. Song, V. Gauss, H. Zhang, M. Gross, P. Wen, S. Esener, "All-optical flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2969-2971 (2007).
  8. N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).
  9. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).
  10. D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).
  11. S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).
  12. C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).
  13. L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).
  14. P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).
  15. A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).
  16. C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

2009 (1)

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).

2007 (5)

D. N. Maywar, K. P. Solomon, G. P. Agrawal, "Remote optical control of an optical flip-flop," Opt. Lett. 32, 3260-3262 (2007).

D. Song, V. Gauss, H. Zhang, M. Gross, P. Wen, S. Esener, "All-optical flip-flop based on vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2969-2971 (2007).

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).

H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Cascadable all-optical inverter based on a nonlinear vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 32, 1884-1886 (2007).

C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

2006 (2)

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).

N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).

2002 (2)

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

2000 (1)

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).

1999 (1)

P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).

1992 (1)

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Hurtado, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, "Bistability and nonlinear gain in 1.55 $\mu {\rm m}$ vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiments," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151106-151106 (2007).

T. Mori, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Low-switching-energy and high-repetition-frequency all-optical flip-flop operations of a polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101102-101102 (2006).

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "Simplified-antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1659-1661 (2000).

L. J. Mawst, D. Botez, C. Zmudzinski, C. Tu, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type, single-mode diode lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 503-505 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. M. Kaplan, G. P. Agrawal, D. N. Maywar, "All-optical flip-flop operation of VCSOA," Electron. Lett. 45, 127-128 (2009).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (4)

P. Pakdeevanich, M. J. Adams, "Measurements and modeling of reflective bistability in 1.55 mm laser diode amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 35, 1894-1903 (1999).

A. Hurtado, A. Gonzalez-Marcos, J. A. Martin-Pereda, "Modeling reflective bistability in vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 41, 376-383 (2005).

D. Zhou, L. J. Mawst, "High-power, single-mode antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 38, 1599-1606 (2002).

S. F. Yu, "Polarization selection in birefringent antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide-type vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39, 1362-1372 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, N. S. Chen, "Transverse-leaky-mode characteristics of arrow VCSELs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1797-1804 (2004).

N. S. Chen, S. F. Yu, "Design and analysis of large-area vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers with anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 526-535 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (2)

C. F. Marki, D. R. Jorgesen, H. Zhang, P. Wen, S. Esener, "Observation of counterclockwise, clockwise and butterfly bistability in 1550 nm VCSOAs," Opt. Exp. 15, 4953-4959 (2007).

P. Wen, M. Sanchez, M. Gross, S. Esener, "Observation of bistability in a vertical-cavity semiconductor optical amplifier (VCSOA)," Opt. Exp. 10, 1273-1278 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (3)

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