Abstract

This paper introduces an in-service line monitoring technique that can locate a fault in branched optical fibers in passive optical networks (PONs) from a central office. This technique can upgrade the conventional optical fiber line testing and monitoring system. To distinguish a backscattered signal from each branched PON fiber, we employ the fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) fibers as drop cables and a 1650-nm Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometer (B-OTDR) instead of the OTDR used in the conventional testing system. This paper describes the design of the BFS taking the outside plant environment into consideration, and discusses the performance of the proposed testing system. We also demonstrate an experimental measurement that locates a fault in a branching fiber after a 1 $\times$ 8 optical splitter, and in-service line monitoring for gigabit Ethernet PON (GE-PON) transmission systems.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in Japan, (2008) http://www.soumu.go.jp/menu_news/s-news/090318_1.html.
  2. H. Shinohara, "," Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. (2006) Th1.1.
  3. N. Nakao, H. Izumita, T. Inoue, Y. Enomoto, N. Araki, N. Tomita, "Maintenance method using 1650-nm wavelength band for optical fiber cable networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1513-1520 (2001).
  4. F. Caviglia, V. Biase, A. Gnazzo, "Optical maintenance in PONs," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 329-362 (1999).
  5. I. Sankawa, "Fault location technique for in-service branched optical fiber networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 766-768 (1990).
  6. K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, Y. Inoue, "Measuring individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 915-917 (1996).
  7. H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, T. Pfeiffer, "Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks," Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. (2006) Mo3.5.4.
  8. B. Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, X. Qiu, "Nonintrusive fiber monitoring of TDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 305-317 (2007).
  9. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Measurement of distributed strain and temperature in a branched optical fiber network by use of Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 507-509 (1995).
  10. N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Optical fiber line testing system design considering outside environment for 8-branched PON fibers with individually assigned BFSs," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (2006) ThE8.
  11. N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Bending and connection loss measurement of PON branching fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) OThP6.
  12. Y. Enomoto, H. Izumita, M. Nakamura, "Highly developed fiber fault location technique for branched optical fibers of PONs using high spatial resolution OTDR and frequency domain analysis," Rev. Laser Eng. 33, 609-614 (2005).
  13. H. Izumita, T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, "Distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (1997) OWD1-1.
  14. J. Kawataka, K. Hogari, H. Iwata, H. Hakozaki, M. Kanayama, H. Yamamoto, T. Aihara, K. Sato, "Novel optical fiber cable for feeder and distribution sections in access network," J. Lightw.Technol. 21, 789-796 (2003).
  15. Optical Branching Components (Non-Wavelength Selective), ITU-T L37.
  16. Y. Azuma, N. Shibata, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, "Wavelength dependence of Brillouin-gain spectra for single-mode optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 251-252 (1988).
  17. D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1290-1297 (2007).
  18. A. Iino, K. Matsubara, M. Ogai, Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, "Diffusion of hydrogen molecules in fluorine-doped single-mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 25, 78-79 (1989).
  19. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
  20. Y. Koyamada, H. Nakamoto, N. Ohta, "High performance coherent OTDR enhanced with erbium doped fiber amplifiers," J. Opt. Commun. 13, 127-133 (1992).
  21. Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications IEEE Std 802.3ah (2004).
  22. Optical Fibre Cable Maintenance Criteria for In-Service Fiber Testing in Access Networks, ITU-T L.66.
  23. K. Hogari, S. Tetsutani, J. Zhou, F. Yamamoto, K. Sato, "Opticaltransmission characteristics of optical-fiber cables and installed opticalfiber cable networks for WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 540-545 (2003).
  24. M. Ishikura, Y. Ito, O. Maeshima, T. Asami, "A traffic measurement tool for IP-based networks," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. 4, 756-760 (1999) Vail. E82-D.

2007 (2)

B. Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, X. Qiu, "Nonintrusive fiber monitoring of TDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 305-317 (2007).

D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1290-1297 (2007).

2005 (1)

Y. Enomoto, H. Izumita, M. Nakamura, "Highly developed fiber fault location technique for branched optical fibers of PONs using high spatial resolution OTDR and frequency domain analysis," Rev. Laser Eng. 33, 609-614 (2005).

2003 (2)

J. Kawataka, K. Hogari, H. Iwata, H. Hakozaki, M. Kanayama, H. Yamamoto, T. Aihara, K. Sato, "Novel optical fiber cable for feeder and distribution sections in access network," J. Lightw.Technol. 21, 789-796 (2003).

K. Hogari, S. Tetsutani, J. Zhou, F. Yamamoto, K. Sato, "Opticaltransmission characteristics of optical-fiber cables and installed opticalfiber cable networks for WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 540-545 (2003).

2001 (1)

N. Nakao, H. Izumita, T. Inoue, Y. Enomoto, N. Araki, N. Tomita, "Maintenance method using 1650-nm wavelength band for optical fiber cable networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1513-1520 (2001).

1999 (2)

F. Caviglia, V. Biase, A. Gnazzo, "Optical maintenance in PONs," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 329-362 (1999).

M. Ishikura, Y. Ito, O. Maeshima, T. Asami, "A traffic measurement tool for IP-based networks," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. 4, 756-760 (1999) Vail. E82-D.

1996 (1)

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, Y. Inoue, "Measuring individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 915-917 (1996).

1995 (2)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Measurement of distributed strain and temperature in a branched optical fiber network by use of Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 507-509 (1995).

1992 (1)

Y. Koyamada, H. Nakamoto, N. Ohta, "High performance coherent OTDR enhanced with erbium doped fiber amplifiers," J. Opt. Commun. 13, 127-133 (1992).

1990 (1)

I. Sankawa, "Fault location technique for in-service branched optical fiber networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 766-768 (1990).

1989 (1)

A. Iino, K. Matsubara, M. Ogai, Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, "Diffusion of hydrogen molecules in fluorine-doped single-mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 25, 78-79 (1989).

1988 (1)

Y. Azuma, N. Shibata, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, "Wavelength dependence of Brillouin-gain spectra for single-mode optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 251-252 (1988).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Azuma, N. Shibata, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, "Wavelength dependence of Brillouin-gain spectra for single-mode optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 24, 251-252 (1988).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Iino, K. Matsubara, M. Ogai, Y. Horiuchi, Y. Namihira, "Diffusion of hydrogen molecules in fluorine-doped single-mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 25, 78-79 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I. Sankawa, "Fault location technique for in-service branched optical fiber networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 766-768 (1990).

K. Tanaka, M. Tateda, Y. Inoue, "Measuring individual attenuation distribution of passive branched optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 915-917 (1996).

IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. (1)

M. Ishikura, Y. Ito, O. Maeshima, T. Asami, "A traffic measurement tool for IP-based networks," IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. 4, 756-760 (1999) Vail. E82-D.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

K. Hogari, S. Tetsutani, J. Zhou, F. Yamamoto, K. Sato, "Opticaltransmission characteristics of optical-fiber cables and installed opticalfiber cable networks for WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 540-545 (2003).

D. Iida, N. Honda, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Design of identification fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts for monitoring passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1290-1297 (2007).

N. Nakao, H. Izumita, T. Inoue, Y. Enomoto, N. Araki, N. Tomita, "Maintenance method using 1650-nm wavelength band for optical fiber cable networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1513-1520 (2001).

B. Mulder, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, J. Vandewege, X. Qiu, "Nonintrusive fiber monitoring of TDM optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 305-317 (2007).

J. Lightw.Technol. (1)

J. Kawataka, K. Hogari, H. Iwata, H. Hakozaki, M. Kanayama, H. Yamamoto, T. Aihara, K. Sato, "Novel optical fiber cable for feeder and distribution sections in access network," J. Lightw.Technol. 21, 789-796 (2003).

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Koyamada, H. Nakamoto, N. Ohta, "High performance coherent OTDR enhanced with erbium doped fiber amplifiers," J. Opt. Commun. 13, 127-133 (1992).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Caviglia, V. Biase, A. Gnazzo, "Optical maintenance in PONs," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 329-362 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

Y. Enomoto, H. Izumita, M. Nakamura, "Highly developed fiber fault location technique for branched optical fibers of PONs using high spatial resolution OTDR and frequency domain analysis," Rev. Laser Eng. 33, 609-614 (2005).

Other (9)

H. Izumita, T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, "Distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (1997) OWD1-1.

H. Schmuck, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, T. Pfeiffer, "Embedded OTDR techniques for cost-efficient fibre monitoring in optical access networks," Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. (2006) Mo3.5.4.

Optical Branching Components (Non-Wavelength Selective), ITU-T L37.

N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Optical fiber line testing system design considering outside environment for 8-branched PON fibers with individually assigned BFSs," Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf. (2006) ThE8.

N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, F. Ito, "Bending and connection loss measurement of PON branching fibers with individually assigned Brillouin frequency shifts," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) OThP6.

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in Japan, (2008) http://www.soumu.go.jp/menu_news/s-news/090318_1.html.

H. Shinohara, "," Eur. Conf. Exhibition Opt. Commun. (2006) Th1.1.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications IEEE Std 802.3ah (2004).

Optical Fibre Cable Maintenance Criteria for In-Service Fiber Testing in Access Networks, ITU-T L.66.

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