Abstract

We propose a self-alignment process of an optical device with an optical multimode fiber (MMF) and a novel optical subassembly using a pre-self-aligned device. In order to form the pre-self-aligned device, the optical device such as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is aligned with the MMF using the surface tension of a transparent liquid adhesive. The optical subassembly we have developed is provided with a simple structure consisting of the pre-self-aligned VCSEL and an interposer board to be mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB). Details of the low-cost self-alignment technology and the optical subassembly are reported. Alignment accuracy of average 13 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ is achieved and coupling efficiency of the self-aligned VCSEL to the MMF is determined to be maximum 35%. 1-Gb/s optical signal transmission using the optical subassembly is also demonstrated. This self-alignment technology and the fabricated optical subassembly are effective in achieving low-cost optical modules for optical interconnect systems from commodities to high-end applications.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. & Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
  2. T. Mikawa, "Low-cost high-density optical parallel link modules and optical backplane for the last 1-meter regime applications," Proc. SPIE Photon. Packag., Integration, Interconnects VIII (Proc. Vol.) (2008).
  3. I. Hatakeyama, K. Miyoshi, J. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, T. Watanabe, J. Ushioda, Y. Hashimoto, R. Kuribayashi, K. Kurata, "A 400 Gb/s backplane switch with 10 Gbps/port optical I/O interfaces," Proc. SPIE Active and Passive Opt. Compon. for WDM Commun. V (Proc. Vol.) (2005) pp. 60140J-1-60140J-7.
  4. A. Suzuki, T. Ishikawa, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "10-Gb/s x 12-ch downsized optical modules with electrical conductive film connector," Proc. 58th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (2008).
  5. T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, "Fabrication of light-induced self-written waveguides with a W-shaped refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2542-2548 (2005).
  6. T. Yoshimula, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, W. -C. V. Wang, M. Inao, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, S. Aoki, K. Motoyoshi, W. Sotoyama, "Self-organizing lightwave network (SOLNET) and its application to film optical circuit substrates," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 24, 500-509 (2001).
  7. T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized microoptoelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects-performance modeling and simulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 492-511 (2003).
  8. K. -L. Deng, T. Gorczyca, B. K. Lee, H. Xia, R. Guida, T. Karras, "Self-aligned singlemode polymer waveguide interconnections for efficient chip-to-chip optical coupling," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 923-930 (2006).
  9. H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, T. Shioda, "Self-written waveguide connection between VCSEL and optical fiver with 45$^{\circ}$ mirror using green laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 532-534 (2006).
  10. K. Katsura, T. Hayashi, F. Ohira, "A micro interconnection technique using solder bumps for high-speed optical devices," Proc. Int. Microelectron. Conf. (1990) pp. 105-108.
  11. M. Itoh, J. Sasaki, A. Uda, I. Yoneda, H. Honmou, K. Fukushima, "Use of solder bumps in three-dimensional passive aligned packaging of LD/PD arrays on Si optical benches," Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (1996) pp. 1-7.
  12. T. Hashimoto, Y. Nakasuga, Y. Yamada, H. Terui, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Akahori, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Suzuki, "Multichip optical hybrid integration technique with planar lightwave circuit platform," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1249-1258 (1998).
  13. J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, T. Kato, "Multi-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using au-sn solder bumps," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 569-575 (2001).
  14. J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, K. Fujimoto, "Resin self-alignment processes for self-assembly systems," Trans. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 127, 18-24 (2005).
  15. J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, Y. -E. Shin, K. Fujimoto, "3-D highly precise self-alignment process using surface tension of liquid resin material," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1491-1498 (2002).
  16. K. Fujimoto, J. -M. Kim, S. Nakata, "Self-alignment process using liquid resin for assembly of electronic or optoelectronic devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 1967-1974 (2001).
  17. K. Sato, K. Ito, S. Hata, A. Shimokohbe, "Self-alignment of microparts using liquid surface tension-behavior of micropart and alignment characteristics," Precis. Eng. 27, 42-50 (2003).
  18. A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Ishikawa, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, Y. Okada, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Self-alignment of optical devices with fiber for low-cost optical interconnect modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 193-195 (2008).
  19. C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).
  20. Y. Kito, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Kumai, M. Makiuchi, T. Uchida, O. Wada, T. Mikawa, "High-speed flip-chip InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with ultralow capacitance and large gain-bandwidth products," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1115-1116 (1991).
  21. S. Mitachi, T. Nakamura, M. Shimizu, C. Umeyama, Y. Kawata, "Reliability test results for optical devices assembled with a non-smell & highly moisture durable new optical adhesive," Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 170-171.
  22. “Encapsulation materials for optical devices,” Shin-Etsu Chemical Co, Ltd. http://www.shinetsu-encap-mat.jp/e/product/k_l/lds/index.html.
  23. J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, K. J. Ebeling, "Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555-1557 (1997).
  24. S. H. Hwang, D. D. Seo, J. Y. An, M. -H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. -H. Park, H. S. Cho, "Parallel optical transmitter module using angled fibers and a V-grooved silicon optical bench for VCSEL array," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29, 457-462 (2006).
  25. “Data Sheet of ULM850-05-BT-A0112U, 5 Gb/s VCSEL 850 nm Bottom-Emitter, Flip-Chip,” ULM-photonics GmbH.
  26. “Molding Compounds for Power Devices,” KYOCERA Chemical Corp. http://www.kyocera-chemi.jp/english/prdct/list/mcse/pdf/power_e.pdf.
  27. “Four Channel Pluggable Optical Transceiver Multi-Source Agreement, Technical Specification Revision 1.0,” POP4 MSA (2002).
  28. A. G. Helix, “HXT3104A Specification V 1.1,” (2004) 4-Channel 12.5 Gbit/s/ch VCSEL Driver.

2008 (1)

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Ishikawa, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, Y. Okada, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Self-alignment of optical devices with fiber for low-cost optical interconnect modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 193-195 (2008).

2007 (1)

C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).

2006 (3)

S. H. Hwang, D. D. Seo, J. Y. An, M. -H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. -H. Park, H. S. Cho, "Parallel optical transmitter module using angled fibers and a V-grooved silicon optical bench for VCSEL array," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29, 457-462 (2006).

K. -L. Deng, T. Gorczyca, B. K. Lee, H. Xia, R. Guida, T. Karras, "Self-aligned singlemode polymer waveguide interconnections for efficient chip-to-chip optical coupling," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 923-930 (2006).

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, T. Shioda, "Self-written waveguide connection between VCSEL and optical fiver with 45$^{\circ}$ mirror using green laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 532-534 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. & Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, "Fabrication of light-induced self-written waveguides with a W-shaped refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2542-2548 (2005).

J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, K. Fujimoto, "Resin self-alignment processes for self-assembly systems," Trans. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 127, 18-24 (2005).

2003 (2)

T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized microoptoelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects-performance modeling and simulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 492-511 (2003).

K. Sato, K. Ito, S. Hata, A. Shimokohbe, "Self-alignment of microparts using liquid surface tension-behavior of micropart and alignment characteristics," Precis. Eng. 27, 42-50 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, Y. -E. Shin, K. Fujimoto, "3-D highly precise self-alignment process using surface tension of liquid resin material," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1491-1498 (2002).

2001 (3)

K. Fujimoto, J. -M. Kim, S. Nakata, "Self-alignment process using liquid resin for assembly of electronic or optoelectronic devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 1967-1974 (2001).

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, T. Kato, "Multi-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using au-sn solder bumps," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 569-575 (2001).

T. Yoshimula, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, W. -C. V. Wang, M. Inao, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, S. Aoki, K. Motoyoshi, W. Sotoyama, "Self-organizing lightwave network (SOLNET) and its application to film optical circuit substrates," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 24, 500-509 (2001).

1998 (1)

T. Hashimoto, Y. Nakasuga, Y. Yamada, H. Terui, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Akahori, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Suzuki, "Multichip optical hybrid integration technique with planar lightwave circuit platform," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1249-1258 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, K. J. Ebeling, "Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555-1557 (1997).

1991 (1)

Y. Kito, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Kumai, M. Makiuchi, T. Uchida, O. Wada, T. Mikawa, "High-speed flip-chip InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with ultralow capacitance and large gain-bandwidth products," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1115-1116 (1991).

IBM J. Res. & Dev. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. & Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. -L. Deng, T. Gorczyca, B. K. Lee, H. Xia, R. Guida, T. Karras, "Self-aligned singlemode polymer waveguide interconnections for efficient chip-to-chip optical coupling," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 923-930 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

J. Sasaki, M. Itoh, T. Tamanuki, H. Hatakeyama, S. Kitamura, T. Shimoda, T. Kato, "Multi-chip precise self-aligned assembly for hybrid integrated optical modules using au-sn solder bumps," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 24, 569-575 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized microoptoelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects-performance modeling and simulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 492-511 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, K. Djordjev, S. W. Corzine, M. R. T. Tan, "High-speed 985 nm bottom-emitting VCSEL arrays for chip-to-chip parallel optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1332-1339 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Ozawa, Y. Obata, Y. Mimura, O. Mikami, T. Shioda, "Self-written waveguide connection between VCSEL and optical fiver with 45$^{\circ}$ mirror using green laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 532-534 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Kito, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Kumai, M. Makiuchi, T. Uchida, O. Wada, T. Mikawa, "High-speed flip-chip InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes with ultralow capacitance and large gain-bandwidth products," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1115-1116 (1991).

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, K. J. Ebeling, "Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555-1557 (1997).

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Ishikawa, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, Y. Okada, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "Self-alignment of optical devices with fiber for low-cost optical interconnect modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 193-195 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

S. H. Hwang, D. D. Seo, J. Y. An, M. -H. Kim, W. C. Choi, S. R. Cho, S. H. Lee, H. -H. Park, H. S. Cho, "Parallel optical transmitter module using angled fibers and a V-grooved silicon optical bench for VCSEL array," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 29, 457-462 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. (1)

T. Yoshimula, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, W. -C. V. Wang, M. Inao, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, S. Aoki, K. Motoyoshi, W. Sotoyama, "Self-organizing lightwave network (SOLNET) and its application to film optical circuit substrates," IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 24, 500-509 (2001).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (2)

J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, Y. -E. Shin, K. Fujimoto, "3-D highly precise self-alignment process using surface tension of liquid resin material," IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 1491-1498 (2002).

K. Fujimoto, J. -M. Kim, S. Nakata, "Self-alignment process using liquid resin for assembly of electronic or optoelectronic devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 1967-1974 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Yamashita, M. Kagami, "Fabrication of light-induced self-written waveguides with a W-shaped refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2542-2548 (2005).

T. Hashimoto, Y. Nakasuga, Y. Yamada, H. Terui, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Akahori, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Suzuki, "Multichip optical hybrid integration technique with planar lightwave circuit platform," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1249-1258 (1998).

Precis. Eng. (1)

K. Sato, K. Ito, S. Hata, A. Shimokohbe, "Self-alignment of microparts using liquid surface tension-behavior of micropart and alignment characteristics," Precis. Eng. 27, 42-50 (2003).

Trans. ASME J. Electron. Packag. (1)

J. -M. Kim, K. Yasuda, K. Fujimoto, "Resin self-alignment processes for self-assembly systems," Trans. ASME J. Electron. Packag. 127, 18-24 (2005).

Other (11)

K. Katsura, T. Hayashi, F. Ohira, "A micro interconnection technique using solder bumps for high-speed optical devices," Proc. Int. Microelectron. Conf. (1990) pp. 105-108.

M. Itoh, J. Sasaki, A. Uda, I. Yoneda, H. Honmou, K. Fukushima, "Use of solder bumps in three-dimensional passive aligned packaging of LD/PD arrays on Si optical benches," Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (1996) pp. 1-7.

T. Mikawa, "Low-cost high-density optical parallel link modules and optical backplane for the last 1-meter regime applications," Proc. SPIE Photon. Packag., Integration, Interconnects VIII (Proc. Vol.) (2008).

I. Hatakeyama, K. Miyoshi, J. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, T. Watanabe, J. Ushioda, Y. Hashimoto, R. Kuribayashi, K. Kurata, "A 400 Gb/s backplane switch with 10 Gbps/port optical I/O interfaces," Proc. SPIE Active and Passive Opt. Compon. for WDM Commun. V (Proc. Vol.) (2005) pp. 60140J-1-60140J-7.

A. Suzuki, T. Ishikawa, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "10-Gb/s x 12-ch downsized optical modules with electrical conductive film connector," Proc. 58th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (2008).

“Data Sheet of ULM850-05-BT-A0112U, 5 Gb/s VCSEL 850 nm Bottom-Emitter, Flip-Chip,” ULM-photonics GmbH.

“Molding Compounds for Power Devices,” KYOCERA Chemical Corp. http://www.kyocera-chemi.jp/english/prdct/list/mcse/pdf/power_e.pdf.

“Four Channel Pluggable Optical Transceiver Multi-Source Agreement, Technical Specification Revision 1.0,” POP4 MSA (2002).

A. G. Helix, “HXT3104A Specification V 1.1,” (2004) 4-Channel 12.5 Gbit/s/ch VCSEL Driver.

S. Mitachi, T. Nakamura, M. Shimizu, C. Umeyama, Y. Kawata, "Reliability test results for optical devices assembled with a non-smell & highly moisture durable new optical adhesive," Proc. 19th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (2006) pp. 170-171.

“Encapsulation materials for optical devices,” Shin-Etsu Chemical Co, Ltd. http://www.shinetsu-encap-mat.jp/e/product/k_l/lds/index.html.

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