Abstract

In this paper, we investigate a terrestrial relay-assisted scheme for a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system based on BB84 protocol. We consider the deployment of passive relays which simply redirect the qubits to the next relay node or to the receiver without performing any measurement or detection process. Based on a near-field analysis, we derive an upper bound on quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the relay-assisted QKD system. Our results demonstrate that the relay-assisted scheme is able to outperform point-to-point direct transmission for long link ranges in which turbulence effects are particularly degrading.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (1)

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Relay-assisted free-space optical communication," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 5441-5449 (2008).

2006 (2)

M. Gabbi, S. Arnon, "Quantum key distribution by free space MIMO system," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3114-3140 (2006).

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, "Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 994-995 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Gabby, S. Arnon, "The effect of turbulence on a quantum-key distribution scheme based on transformation from the polarization to the time domain: Laboratory experiment," Opt. Eng. 44, 045002-10-045002-6 (2005).

K. J. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. R. Böhm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, "Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intra-city, free-space quantum channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202-209 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: The main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, s2-s7 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. H. Shapiro, "Near-field turbulence effects on quantum-key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 67, 022309-022309 (2003).

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfenningbauer, W. R. Leeb, A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).

2002 (4)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, C. G. Peterson, "Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night," New J. Phys. 4, 43-43 (2002).

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-145 (2002).

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, "Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307-052307 (2002).

C. Elliot, "Building the quantum network," New J. Phys. 4, 46.1-46.12 (2002).

2000 (1)

R. J. Hughes, W. T. Buttler, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, "Free-space quantum key distribution in daylight," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 549-562 (2000).

1998 (2)

1994 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, "Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics," Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).

1991 (2)

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).

M. C. Roggemann, "Limited degree-of-freedom adaptive optics and image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 30, 4227-4233 (1991).

1987 (1)

P. Nisenson, R. Barakat, "Partial atmospheric correction with adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, 2249-2253 (1987).

1976 (1)

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, C. L. Koliopoulos, "Real-time atmospheric compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 360-369 (1976).

1974 (1)

J. H. Shapiro, "Normal-mode approach to wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 13, 2614-2614 (1974).

1965 (1)

D. Slepian, "Analytic solution of two apodization problems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1110-1115 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. H. Shapiro, "Normal-mode approach to wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 13, 2614-2614 (1974).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. K. Karagiannidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, "Outage probability of relayed free space optical communication systems," Electron. Lett. 42, 994-995 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Kedar, S. Arnon, "Urban optical wireless communication networks: The main challenges and possible solutions," IEEE Commun. Mag. 42, s2-s7 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfenningbauer, W. R. Leeb, A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

M. Safari, M. Uysal, "Relay-assisted free-space optical communication," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 5441-5449 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Gabbi, S. Arnon, "Quantum key distribution by free space MIMO system," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3114-3140 (2006).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. J. Hughes, W. T. Buttler, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, C. G. Peterson, "Free-space quantum key distribution in daylight," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 549-562 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (2)

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, C. L. Koliopoulos, "Real-time atmospheric compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 67, 360-369 (1976).

D. Slepian, "Analytic solution of two apodization problems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 55, 1110-1115 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

P. Nisenson, R. Barakat, "Partial atmospheric correction with adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 4, 2249-2253 (1987).

Nature (1)

J. R. P. Angel, "Ground-based imaging of extrasolar planets using adaptive optics," Nature 368, 203-207 (1994).

New J. Phys. (1)

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, C. G. Peterson, "Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night," New J. Phys. 4, 43-43 (2002).

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Elliot, "Building the quantum network," New J. Phys. 4, 46.1-46.12 (2002).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Gabby, S. Arnon, "The effect of turbulence on a quantum-key distribution scheme based on transformation from the polarization to the time domain: Laboratory experiment," Opt. Eng. 44, 045002-10-045002-6 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. J. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. R. Böhm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, "Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intra-city, free-space quantum channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202-209 (2005).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. H. Shapiro, "Near-field turbulence effects on quantum-key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 67, 022309-022309 (2003).

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, "Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052307-052307 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).

H. J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-145 (2002).

Other (6)

G. Van Assche, Quantum Cryptography and Secret-Key Distillation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Signal Process. (1984) pp. 175-179.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, N. C. Sagias, "Multihop free-space optical communications over strong turbulence channels," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. 2006 (ICC'06) (2006) pp. 2755-2759.

H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, A. Pasquinucci, “Quantum key distribution with trusted quantum relay,” (2005) eprint quant-ph /0505089.

G. Gilbert, M. Hamrick, “Practical quantum cryptography: A comprehensive analysis (Part One),” MITRE Tech. Rep. (2000) preprint quant-ph/0009027.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, Laser Beam Scintillation With Applications (SPIE Press, 2001).

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