Abstract

Indoor diffuse optical wireless (OW) communication systems performance is limited due to a number of effects; interference from natural and artificial light sources and multipath induced intersymbol interference (ISI). Artificial light interference (ALI) is a periodic signal with a spectrum profile extending up to the MHz range. It is the dominant source of performance degradation at low data rates, which can be removed using a high-pass filter (HPF). On the other hand, ISI is more severe at high data rates and an equalizing filter is incorporated at the receiver to compensate for the ISI. This paper provides the simulation results for a discrete wavelet transform (DWT)—artificial neural network (ANN)-based receiver architecture for on-and-off keying (OOK) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) scheme for a diffuse indoor OW link in the presence of ALI and ISI. ANN is adopted for classification acting as an efficient equalizer compared to the traditional equalizers. The ALI is effectively reduced by proper selection of the DWT coefficients resulting in improved receiver performance compared to the digital HPF. The simulated bit error rate (BER) performance of proposed DWT-ANN receiver structure for a diffuse indoor OW link operating at a data range of 10-200 Mbps is presented and discussed. The results are compared with performance of a diffuse link with an HPF-equalizer, ALI with/without filtering, and a line-of-sight (LOS) without filtering. We show that the DWT-ANN display a lower power requirement when compared to the receiver with an HPF-equalizer over a full range of delay spread in presence of ALI. However, as expected compared to the ideal LOS link the power penalty is higher reaching to 6 dB at 200 Mbps data rate.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (2)

R. J. Green, H. Joshi, M. D. Higgins, M. S. Leeson, "Recent developments in indoor optical wireless systems," IET Commun. 2, 3-10 (2008).

R. Zayani, R. Bouallegue, D. Roviras, "Adaptive predistortions based on neural networks associated with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for satellite down links," EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2008, 1-15 (2008).

2007 (1)

D. O'Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, "Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication," Nature Photon. 1, 245-247 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. K. Tripathy, K. T. Raghavendra, "An efficient channel equalizer using artificial neural networks," Neural Netw. World 16, 357-368 (2006).

A. K. Pradhan, S. K. Meher, A. Routray, "Communication channel equalization using wavelet network," Digital Signal Process. 16, 445-452 (2006).

2005 (1)

J. Choi, M. Bouchard, T. H. Yeap, "Decision feedback recurrent neural equalization with fast convergence rate," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 16, 699-708 (2005).

2002 (1)

S. Haykin, "Adaptive digital communication receivers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 106-114 (2002).

1998 (1)

P. Savazzi, L. Favalli, V. Mecocci, "A suboptimal approach to channel equalization based on the nearest neighbor rule," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1640-1648 (1998).

1997 (2)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Modeling of nondirected wireless Infrared channels," IEEE Trans. Commun 45, 1260-1268 (1997).

1996 (3)

R. Narasimhan, M. D. Audeh, J. M. Kahn, "Effect of electronic-ballast fluorescent lighting on wireless infrared links," IEE Proc. —Optoelectron. 143, 347-354 (1996).

P. L. Eardley, D. R. Wisely, D. Wood, P. McKee, "Holograms for optical wireless LANs," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 365-369 (1996).

A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, A. M. D. O. Duarte, "Performance of infrared transmission systems under ambient light interference," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 339-346 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. C. Patra, N. R. N. Pal, "A functional link artificial neural network for adaptive channel equalization," Signal Process. 43, 181-195 (1995).

1989 (1)

S. G. Mallat, "A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 11, 674-693 (1989).

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474-1486 (1979).

Digital Signal Process. (1)

A. K. Pradhan, S. K. Meher, A. Routray, "Communication channel equalization using wavelet network," Digital Signal Process. 16, 445-452 (2006).

EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. (1)

R. Zayani, R. Bouallegue, D. Roviras, "Adaptive predistortions based on neural networks associated with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for satellite down links," EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw. 2008, 1-15 (2008).

IEE Proc. —Optoelectron. (1)

R. Narasimhan, M. D. Audeh, J. M. Kahn, "Effect of electronic-ballast fluorescent lighting on wireless infrared links," IEE Proc. —Optoelectron. 143, 347-354 (1996).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (2)

P. L. Eardley, D. R. Wisely, D. Wood, P. McKee, "Holograms for optical wireless LANs," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 365-369 (1996).

A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, A. M. D. O. Duarte, "Performance of infrared transmission systems under ambient light interference," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 339-346 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

P. Savazzi, L. Favalli, V. Mecocci, "A suboptimal approach to channel equalization based on the nearest neighbor rule," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1640-1648 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. (1)

J. Choi, M. Bouchard, T. H. Yeap, "Decision feedback recurrent neural equalization with fast convergence rate," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 16, 699-708 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. G. Mallat, "A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: The wavelet representation," IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 11, 674-693 (1989).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Haykin, "Adaptive digital communication receivers," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 106-114 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Commun (1)

J. B. Carruthers, J. M. Kahn, "Modeling of nondirected wireless Infrared channels," IEEE Trans. Commun 45, 1260-1268 (1997).

IET Commun. (1)

R. J. Green, H. Joshi, M. D. Higgins, M. S. Leeson, "Recent developments in indoor optical wireless systems," IET Commun. 2, 3-10 (2008).

Nature Photon. (1)

D. O'Brien, G. Parry, P. Stavrinou, "Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication," Nature Photon. 1, 245-247 (2007).

Neural Netw. World (1)

A. K. Tripathy, K. T. Raghavendra, "An efficient channel equalizer using artificial neural networks," Neural Netw. World 16, 357-368 (2006).

Proc. IEEE (2)

F. R. Gfeller, U. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474-1486 (1979).

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85, 265-298 (1997).

Signal Process. (1)

J. C. Patra, N. R. N. Pal, "A functional link artificial neural network for adaptive channel equalization," Signal Process. 43, 181-195 (1995).

Other (13)

L. Hanzo, C. H. Wong, M. S. Yee, Adaptive Wireless Transceivers (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2002) pp. 299-383.

B. Lu, B. L. Evans, "Channel equalization by feedforward neural networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst. (1999) pp. 587-590.

J. B. Carruthers, Wiley Encyclopaedia of Telecommunications (Wiley, 2002).

R. J. Dickenson, Wavelet analysis and artificial intelligence for diffuse indoor optical wireless communication Ph.D. dissertation School of CEIS Northumbria Univ.Newcastle Upon TyneU.K. (2007).

“Free Space Optics (FSO): An Introduction.” http://www.free-space-optics.org, last access data (2009.).

“IrDA Market Report 2007.” http://www.irda.org/associations/2494/files/Publications/IrDA_MR_TOC.pdf, last access data (2009.).

D. M. Forin, G. M. Tosi Beleffi, F. Curti, N. Corsi, V. De Sanctis, V. Sacchieri, A. J. L. Teixeira, G. Cincotti, "On field test of a wavelength division multiplexing free space optics transmission at very high bit rates," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Telecomm. (2007) pp. 77-80.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s Free-Space Optical Transmission using OFDM," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./National Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

R. D. Wisely, "A 1 Gbit/s optical wireless tracked architecture for ATM delivery," IEE Colloquium Opt. Free Space Commun. Links (1996) pp. 14/1-14/7.

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "Performance of OOK with ANN equalization in indoor optical wireless communication system," Proc. PGNET 2007 (2007) pp. 86-90.

S. Rajbhandari, Z. Ghassemlooy, M. Angelova, "The performance of PPM using neural network and symbol decoding for diffused indoor optical wireless links," Proc. ICTON2007 (2007) pp. 161-164.

C. S. Burrus, R. A. Gopinath, H. Guo, Introduction to Wavelets and Wavelet Transforms: A Primer (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, A. M. D. O. Duarte, "Characterisation and modelling of artificial light interference inoptical wireless communication systems," Proc. 6th IEEE Int. Symp. Personal, Indoor, Mobile Radio Commun. (1995) pp. 326-331.

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