Abstract

A 40 Gb/s multifunction optical format conversion module based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing (ND-FWM) arising in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is proposed and demonstrated. It has the ability to achieve NRZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK to CSRZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK, RZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK to CSRZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK, and CSRZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK to RZ-OOK/DPSK/DQPSK format conversions. A comprehensive dynamic model to investigate twelve FWM-related waves in SOA is presented. Using this model, the proposed module with multiple format conversions is numerically investigated. We find that the SOA based scheme can be used for high-speed all-optical multifunction format conversion, because one of the FWM participators also serves as an assist light to accelerate SOA gain recovery. Meanwhile three identical converted signals with different wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously for all-optical wavelength multicast application. Finally, the bit-error-rate (BER) measurements of some 10 Gb/s operations are demonstrated in order to further verify the proposed multifunction format conversion module. The power penalty is measured to be less than 1 dB at the BER level of $10 ^{-9}$.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. X. Wu, "40-GHz CSRZ optical pulse generation using a 10 GHz Mach–Zehnder modulator and a 25-ps delay line interferometer," Proc. LEOS (2007) pp. 882-883.
  3. X. Zhang, "All optical pulsewidth-tunable CSRZ signal generation using ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator and time delay interometer," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 565-566.
  4. Y. Miyamoto, "320 Gbit/s (8$\,\times\,$40Gb/s) WDM transmission over 367 km with 120 km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2041-2042 (1999).
  5. K. Grobe, "Assessment of 40 Gb/s techniques for metro/ reginoal applications," Proc. OFC (2006).
  6. C. H. Kwok, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 451-458 (2006).
  7. C. H. Kwok, "Simultaneous 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ modulation format conversion in nonlinear optical loop mirror with a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1825-1827 (2007).
  8. H. Kawaguch, "All-optical RZ to NRZ format conversion using an ultrafast polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 13th Annu. Meeting (2000) WU2.
  9. C. W. Chow, "All-optical modulation format conversion and multicasting using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2386-2392 (2004).
  10. G.-R. Lin, "10 Gbit/s all-optical non-return to zero-return-to-zero data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 1376-1378 (2006).
  11. C. G. Lee, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror," J. Lightw.Technol. 23, 834-841 (2005).
  12. J. Dong, "Single-to-dual channel NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by four-wave mixing in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).
  13. S. H. Lee, "All optical ASK to DPSK format conversion using cross-phase modulation in a nonlinear photonic crystal fibre," LEOS/PR (2005) CFJ2-5.
  14. S. Kitagawa, "All-optical modulation format conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-M-ary PSK based on fiber nonlinearity," OFC/NFOEC (2008) OtuD6.
  15. W. Astar, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).
  16. C. Yan, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).
  17. H. Jiang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).
  18. T. Silveira, "40-Gb/s multichannel NRZ to CSRZ format conversion using an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1597-1599 (2008).
  19. C. Kim, "Hybrid RZ to CSRZ format conversion," Electron. Lett. 40, (2004).
  20. J. Wang, "First demonstration on the non-transparency of FWM and its application of 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-to-RZ format conversion," ECOC (2008) Th.1.B.4.
  21. W. Li, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 203-205 (2004).
  22. J. Wang, "Proposal for PPLN-based all-optical NRZ-to-CSRZ, RZ-to-CSRZ, NRZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK, and RZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK format conversions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1039-1041 (2008).
  23. T. T. Lee, "Nonblocking copy networks for multicast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, (1988).
  24. R. K. Pankaj, "Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, (1999).
  25. M. P. Fok, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6$\,\times\,$10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).
  26. N. C. Kothari, "Influence of gain saturation, gain asymmetry, and pump/probe depletion on wavelength conversion efficiency of FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1810-1816 (1996).
  27. H. Simos, "Investigation of a 2R all-optical regenerator based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 595-604 (2004).
  28. P. L. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 14, 11839-11847 (2006).
  29. P. L. Li, "Novel all-optical AND and NOR gates based on semiconductor optical amplifier," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 871-877 (2007).
  30. N. Deng, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).
  31. N. Shibata, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-23, (1987).
  32. A. Akhtar, "Modeling and analysis of the contribution of channel walk-off to nondegenerate and degenerate four-wave-mixing noise in RZ-OOK optical transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4269-4285 (2006).
  33. T. Mukai, "Detuning characteristics and conversion efficiency of nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in a 1.5-m traveling-wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26, 865-875 (1990).
  34. A. Mecozzi, "Analytical theory of four-wave mixing in semiconductor amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 19, 892-894 (1994).
  35. D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical ampli-fiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).
  36. I. Tomdos, "Mechanisms of wave mixing and polarixation sensitivity of the wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers using two parallel polarised pumps," Opt. Commun. 163, 49-54 (1999).
  37. H. Wang, "Spectral characteristics of optical pulse amplifica-tion in SOA under assist light injection," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2761-2771 (2005).
  38. G. Berrettini, "Ultra-fast integrable and reconfigurable XNOR, AND, NOR, and NOT photonic logic gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 917-919 (2006).

2008 (3)

J. Dong, "Single-to-dual channel NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by four-wave mixing in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

T. Silveira, "40-Gb/s multichannel NRZ to CSRZ format conversion using an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1597-1599 (2008).

J. Wang, "Proposal for PPLN-based all-optical NRZ-to-CSRZ, RZ-to-CSRZ, NRZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK, and RZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK format conversions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1039-1041 (2008).

2007 (4)

M. P. Fok, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6$\,\times\,$10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).

H. Jiang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).

C. H. Kwok, "Simultaneous 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ modulation format conversion in nonlinear optical loop mirror with a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1825-1827 (2007).

P. L. Li, "Novel all-optical AND and NOR gates based on semiconductor optical amplifier," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 871-877 (2007).

2006 (9)

N. Deng, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

A. Akhtar, "Modeling and analysis of the contribution of channel walk-off to nondegenerate and degenerate four-wave-mixing noise in RZ-OOK optical transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4269-4285 (2006).

P. L. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 14, 11839-11847 (2006).

G. Berrettini, "Ultra-fast integrable and reconfigurable XNOR, AND, NOR, and NOT photonic logic gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 917-919 (2006).

P. J. Winzer, "Advanced modulation format for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).

W. Astar, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).

C. Yan, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).

G.-R. Lin, "10 Gbit/s all-optical non-return to zero-return-to-zero data format conversion based on a backward dark-optical-comb injected semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 1376-1378 (2006).

C. H. Kwok, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 451-458 (2006).

2005 (2)

C. G. Lee, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror," J. Lightw.Technol. 23, 834-841 (2005).

H. Wang, "Spectral characteristics of optical pulse amplifica-tion in SOA under assist light injection," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2761-2771 (2005).

2004 (4)

H. Simos, "Investigation of a 2R all-optical regenerator based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 595-604 (2004).

C. W. Chow, "All-optical modulation format conversion and multicasting using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2386-2392 (2004).

C. Kim, "Hybrid RZ to CSRZ format conversion," Electron. Lett. 40, (2004).

W. Li, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 203-205 (2004).

2000 (1)

D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical ampli-fiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).

1999 (3)

I. Tomdos, "Mechanisms of wave mixing and polarixation sensitivity of the wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers using two parallel polarised pumps," Opt. Commun. 163, 49-54 (1999).

R. K. Pankaj, "Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, (1999).

Y. Miyamoto, "320 Gbit/s (8$\,\times\,$40Gb/s) WDM transmission over 367 km with 120 km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2041-2042 (1999).

1996 (1)

N. C. Kothari, "Influence of gain saturation, gain asymmetry, and pump/probe depletion on wavelength conversion efficiency of FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1810-1816 (1996).

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

T. Mukai, "Detuning characteristics and conversion efficiency of nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in a 1.5-m traveling-wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26, 865-875 (1990).

1988 (1)

T. T. Lee, "Nonblocking copy networks for multicast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, (1988).

1987 (1)

N. Shibata, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-23, (1987).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

P. L. Li, "Novel all-optical AND and NOR gates based on semiconductor optical amplifier," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 871-877 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (4)

Y. Miyamoto, "320 Gbit/s (8$\,\times\,$40Gb/s) WDM transmission over 367 km with 120 km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero format," Electron. Lett. 35, 2041-2042 (1999).

J. Dong, "Single-to-dual channel NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by four-wave mixing in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

W. Astar, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).

C. Kim, "Hybrid RZ to CSRZ format conversion," Electron. Lett. 40, (2004).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (2)

T. Mukai, "Detuning characteristics and conversion efficiency of nearly degenerate four-wave mixing in a 1.5-m traveling-wave semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 26, 865-875 (1990).

N. C. Kothari, "Influence of gain saturation, gain asymmetry, and pump/probe depletion on wavelength conversion efficiency of FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 32, 1810-1816 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Silveira, "40-Gb/s multichannel NRZ to CSRZ format conversion using an SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1597-1599 (2008).

C. Yan, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (2)

D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical ampli-fiers," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).

N. Shibata, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in a single-mode optical fiber," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-23, (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

T. T. Lee, "Nonblocking copy networks for multicast packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, (1988).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. H. Kwok, "Simultaneous 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s NRZ-to-RZ modulation format conversion in nonlinear optical loop mirror with a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1825-1827 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Jiang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).

W. Li, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to CSRZ and between RZ and CSRZ using SOA-based fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 203-205 (2004).

J. Wang, "Proposal for PPLN-based all-optical NRZ-to-CSRZ, RZ-to-CSRZ, NRZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK, and RZ-DPSK-to-CSRZ-DPSK format conversions," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1039-1041 (2008).

M. P. Fok, "Multipump four-wave mixing in a photonic crystal fiber for 6$\,\times\,$10Gb/s wavelength multicasting of DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1166-1168 (2007).

G. Berrettini, "Ultra-fast integrable and reconfigurable XNOR, AND, NOR, and NOT photonic logic gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 917-919 (2006).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

R. K. Pankaj, "Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7, (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Akhtar, "Modeling and analysis of the contribution of channel walk-off to nondegenerate and degenerate four-wave-mixing noise in RZ-OOK optical transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4269-4285 (2006).

J. Lightw.Technol. (1)

P. J. Winzer, "Advanced modulation format for high-capacity optical transport networks," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 4711-4728 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. W. Chow, "All-optical modulation format conversion and multicasting using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2386-2392 (2004).

H. Simos, "Investigation of a 2R all-optical regenerator based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 595-604 (2004).

H. Wang, "Spectral characteristics of optical pulse amplifica-tion in SOA under assist light injection," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2761-2771 (2005).

J. Lightw.Technol. (1)

C. G. Lee, "Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop-mirror," J. Lightw.Technol. 23, 834-841 (2005).

J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

C. H. Kwok, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum," J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 451-458 (2006).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Deng, "An all-optical XOR logic gate for high-speed RZ-DPSK signals by FWM in semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 702-707 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Tomdos, "Mechanisms of wave mixing and polarixation sensitivity of the wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifiers using two parallel polarised pumps," Opt. Commun. 163, 49-54 (1999).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. L. Li, "Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 14, 11839-11847 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (7)

H. Kawaguch, "All-optical RZ to NRZ format conversion using an ultrafast polarization bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 13th Annu. Meeting (2000) WU2.

X. Wu, "40-GHz CSRZ optical pulse generation using a 10 GHz Mach–Zehnder modulator and a 25-ps delay line interferometer," Proc. LEOS (2007) pp. 882-883.

X. Zhang, "All optical pulsewidth-tunable CSRZ signal generation using ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ modulator and time delay interometer," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 565-566.

K. Grobe, "Assessment of 40 Gb/s techniques for metro/ reginoal applications," Proc. OFC (2006).

S. H. Lee, "All optical ASK to DPSK format conversion using cross-phase modulation in a nonlinear photonic crystal fibre," LEOS/PR (2005) CFJ2-5.

S. Kitagawa, "All-optical modulation format conversion from NRZ-OOK to RZ-M-ary PSK based on fiber nonlinearity," OFC/NFOEC (2008) OtuD6.

J. Wang, "First demonstration on the non-transparency of FWM and its application of 40 Gbit/s CSRZ-to-RZ format conversion," ECOC (2008) Th.1.B.4.

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