Abstract

This paper describes a fiber design that incorporates a hole-assisted structure for suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The proposed hole-assisted fibers (HAFs) have a simple structure with a low relative index difference and/or a small core radius. We suppress the SBS by extending the optical field into the cladding region, which reduces the overlap between a lightwave and an acoustic wave both in the fundamental mode. The bending loss remains low because of the optical field confinement provided by the air holes. We discuss the impact of the core profile on the SBS gain spectrum and show numerically a 13.5 dB improvement in the SBS threshold with both a low SBS gain and a large effective area. Moreover, we show that we can realize SBS suppressed HAF with a low bending loss and almost the same mode field diameter as SSMF by designing the air hole structure. Finally, we experimentally confirm the SBS suppression effect by using the fabricated HAF.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006) pp. 329-367.
  2. L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow, H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber stimulated Brillouin ring laser with submilliwatt pump threshold," Opt. Lett. 7, 509-511 (1982).
  3. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
  4. M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, T. Yagi, "Improvement of FWM conversion efficiency by SBS-suppressed highly nonlinear dispersion-decreasing fiber with a strain distribution," Proc. ECOC BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Tu.3.B.6.
  5. X. P. Mao, G. E. Bodeep, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, T. E. Darcie, R. M. Derosier, "Brillouin scattering in externally modulated lightwave AM-VSB CATV transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 287-289 (1992).
  6. N. Yoshizawa, T. Imai, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1518-1522 (1993).
  7. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1691-1697 (2001).
  8. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 549-554 (1996).
  9. M. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, L. A. Zenteno, "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 15, 8290-8299 (2007).
  10. P. D. Dragic, C. Liu, G. C. Papen, A. Galvanauskas, "Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression," CLEO BaltimoreMD (2005) Paper CThZ3.
  11. T. Nakanishi, M. Tanaka, T. Hasegawa, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "${\rm Al}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}-{\rm SiO}_{2}$ core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB," ECOC CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th4.1.2.
  12. K. Imamura, N. Kumano, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, Y. Koyamada, "6-dB SBS threshold improved optical fiber compatible with standard SMF," OECC KaoshsiungTaiwan, R.O.C. (2006) Paper 6D1-3.
  13. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).
  14. A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).
  15. A. B. Ruffin, M. J. Li, X. Chen, A. Kobyakov, F. Annunziata, "Brillouin gain analysis for fibers with different refractive indices," Opt. Lett. 30, 3123-3125 (2005).
  16. T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, T. Kurashima, "Fiber design for SBS suppression by using hole-assisted structure," OFC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWU2.
  17. T. Nakanishi, M. Tanaka, T. Hasegawa, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "Al2O3-SiO2 core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB," ECOC (2006) Th4.1.2.

2007 (1)

M. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, L. A. Zenteno, "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 15, 8290-8299 (2007).

2005 (2)

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

A. B. Ruffin, M. J. Li, X. Chen, A. Kobyakov, F. Annunziata, "Brillouin gain analysis for fibers with different refractive indices," Opt. Lett. 30, 3123-3125 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

2001 (1)

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1691-1697 (2001).

1996 (1)

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 549-554 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

1993 (1)

N. Yoshizawa, T. Imai, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1518-1522 (1993).

1992 (1)

X. P. Mao, G. E. Bodeep, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, T. E. Darcie, R. M. Derosier, "Brillouin scattering in externally modulated lightwave AM-VSB CATV transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 287-289 (1992).

1982 (1)

L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow, H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber stimulated Brillouin ring laser with submilliwatt pump threshold," Opt. Lett. 7, 509-511 (1982).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 549-554 (1996).

X. P. Mao, G. E. Bodeep, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, T. E. Darcie, R. M. Derosier, "Brillouin scattering in externally modulated lightwave AM-VSB CATV transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 287-289 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

N. Yoshizawa, T. Imai, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1518-1522 (1993).

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1691-1697 (2001).

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

L. F. Stokes, M. Chodorow, H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber stimulated Brillouin ring laser with submilliwatt pump threshold," Opt. Lett. 7, 509-511 (1982).

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, L. A. Zenteno, "Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 15, 8290-8299 (2007).

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, T. Kurashima, "Fiber design for SBS suppression by using hole-assisted structure," OFC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWU2.

T. Nakanishi, M. Tanaka, T. Hasegawa, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "Al2O3-SiO2 core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB," ECOC (2006) Th4.1.2.

P. D. Dragic, C. Liu, G. C. Papen, A. Galvanauskas, "Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression," CLEO BaltimoreMD (2005) Paper CThZ3.

T. Nakanishi, M. Tanaka, T. Hasegawa, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, "${\rm Al}_{2}{\rm O}_{3}-{\rm SiO}_{2}$ core highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber with Brillouin gain suppression improved by 6.1 dB," ECOC CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th4.1.2.

K. Imamura, N. Kumano, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, Y. Koyamada, "6-dB SBS threshold improved optical fiber compatible with standard SMF," OECC KaoshsiungTaiwan, R.O.C. (2006) Paper 6D1-3.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2006) pp. 329-367.

M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, T. Yagi, "Improvement of FWM conversion efficiency by SBS-suppressed highly nonlinear dispersion-decreasing fiber with a strain distribution," Proc. ECOC BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Tu.3.B.6.

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