Abstract

The optical properties of two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides were investigated using ferroelectric barium titanate (BTO) thin films as the optical medium. The photonic band structure was calculated using a 2-D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method; a broad band gap is observed that results from the high refractive index contrast. The simulated transmission spectra indicate the stop band of PhC is mainly determined by three parameters: lattice constant, refractive index contrast, and waveguide mode order. From transmission measurements the PhC with a lattice constant ${a}=420$ nm shows a strong light dispersion and the other PhC with ${a}=450$ nm shows a 120-nm broad stop band. Strong localization of visible light within the PhC cavities is demonstrated from the light scattering images. The observed strong light confinement and its spatial intensity profile due to resonance agree with the calculated profiles. From polarized optical microscopy we discovered the scattered light wavelength was highly sensitive to magnitude of the lattice constant. The optical scattering properties indicate BTO PhC can potentially serve as micrometer size electro-optically tunable switches and color filters.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (1)

P. T. Lin, Z. Liu, B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric thin film photonic crystal waveguide and its electro-optic properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075005 (2009).

2008 (8)

A. Berrier, R. Ferrini, A. Talneau, R. Houdré, S. Anand, "Impact of feature-size dependent etching on the optical properties of photonic crystal devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 096106.

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, W. Zhou, "Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) 061106.

T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, F. Lederer, "Resonant Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts at photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. A 77, (2008) 053802.

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, A. G. Iglesias1, T. F. Krauss1, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 6227-6232 (2008).

P. C. Mathias, N. L. Ganesh, W. Zhang, B. T. Cunningham, "Graded wavelength one-dimensional photonic crystal reveals spectral characteristics of enhanced fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 094320.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, Q. Gong, "Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity," Nature Photon. 2, 185-189 (2008).

R.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, Z.-F. Feng, B.-Y. Cheng, D.-Z. Zhang, "Channel-drop filters in three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 094514.

P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, J. I. Jang, J. B. Ketterson, "Highly efficient broadband second harmonic generation using polydomain epitaxial barium titanate thin film waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) 221103.

2007 (7)

C. Meier, K. Hennessy, "Technique for tilting GaAs photonic crystal nanocavities out of plane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 143113.

K. Dayal, K. Bhattacharya, "Active tuning of photonic device characteristics by ferroelectric domain switching," J. Appl. Phys. 102, (2007) 064102.

S. T. -Hanic, C. M. de Sterke1, M. J. Steel1, B. J. Eggleton1, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "High-Q cavities in multilayer photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 15, 17248-17253 (2007).

D. P. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, C. J. Summers, "Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) 181123.

T. Sünner, M. Gellner, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Group delay measurements on photonic crystal resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 151117.

J. B. -Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, "Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities," Opt. Exp. 15, 16161-16176 (2007).

J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, F. Vollmer, "Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007) 253901.

2006 (3)

A. Jugessur, L. Wu, A. Bakhtazad, A. Kirk, T. Krauss, R. De La Rue, "Compact and integrated 2-D photonic crystal super-prism filter-device for wavelength demultiplexing applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 1632-1642 (2006).

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. V. Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, "From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals," Nature Mater. 5, 179-184 (2006).

A. Peña, S. Di Finizio, T. Trifonov, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, J. Pallarès, A. Rodriguez, R. Alcubilla, L. F. Marsal, F. Dìaz, J. Martorell, "A two-dimensional KTiOPO $_{4}$ photonic crystal grown using a macroporous silicon template," Adv. Mater. 18, 2220-2225 (2006).

2005 (7)

S. Madden, B. L. Davies, D. Freeman, "Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam," Opt. Exp. 13, 3079-3086 (2005).

X. Hu, Q. Gong, S. Feng, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, "Tunable multichannel filter in nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal," Opt. Commun. 253, 138-144 (2005).

R. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Distributed Bragg feedback intensity modulator in Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$," Electron. Lett. 41, 1028-1030 (2005).

R. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Fabry–Perot intensity modulator with integrated Bragg reflectors in Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$," Electron. Lett. 41, 1220-1222 (2005).

C. Xudong, C. Hafner, R. Vahldieck, "Design of ultra-compact metallo-dielectric photonic crystal filters," Opt. Exp. 13, 6175-6180 (2005).

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, R. T. Chen, "80-micrometer interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) 221105.

2004 (6)

T. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, M. Kondo, M. Tsukada, K. Kurihara, N. Kamehara, "Micropatterned epitaxial (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O $_{3}$ thin films on Nb-doped SrTiO $_{3}$ substrates by a chemical solution deposition process with resist molds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2580-2582 (2004).

M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nature Mater. 3, 211-219 (2004).

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, B. Wessels, "Electrooptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 5962-5967 (2004).

H. Takeda, K. Yoshino, "Tunable photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals by temporal modulation based on the pockels effect," Phys. Rev. E 69, (2004) 016605.

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4615-4617 (2004).

Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, "Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 12, 3988-3995 (2004).

2003 (3)

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, J. Zi, "Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4704-4706 (2003).

S. Xiong, H. Fukshima, "Analysis of light propagation in index-tunable photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1286-1288 (2003).

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, J. Zi, "Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4704-4706 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. H. Hoerman, B. M. Nichols, B. W. Wessels, "Dynamic response of the dielectric and electro-optic properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films," Phys. Rev. B 65, 224110 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, "Ultrabroad-bandwidth electro-optic modulator based on a cascaded Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 25, 70-72 (2000).

1999 (1)

H. F. Taylor, "Enhanced electrooptic modulation efficiency utilizing slow-wave optical propagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1875-1883 (1999).

1993 (1)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, "Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO$_3$ thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314-1316 (1993).

1992 (1)

L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, D. S. Richeson, T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial growth of BaTiO $_{3}$ thin films by organometallic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 41-43 (1992).

1967 (1)

C. N. Berglund, H. J. Braun, "Optical absorption in single-domain ferroelectric barium titanate," Phys. Rev. 164, 790-799 (1967).

Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Peña, S. Di Finizio, T. Trifonov, J. J. Carvajal, M. Aguiló, J. Pallarès, A. Rodriguez, R. Alcubilla, L. F. Marsal, F. Dìaz, J. Martorell, "A two-dimensional KTiOPO $_{4}$ photonic crystal grown using a macroporous silicon template," Adv. Mater. 18, 2220-2225 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, D. S. Richeson, T. J. Marks, "Epitaxial growth of BaTiO $_{3}$ thin films by organometallic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 41-43 (1992).

C. Meier, K. Hennessy, "Technique for tilting GaAs photonic crystal nanocavities out of plane," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 143113.

Z. Qiang, H. Yang, L. Chen, H. Pang, Z. Ma, W. Zhou, "Fano filters based on transferred silicon nanomembranes on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) 061106.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, B. W. Wessels, "Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4615-4617 (2004).

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, B. W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, T. J. Marks, "Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO$_3$ thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314-1316 (1993).

P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, J. I. Jang, J. B. Ketterson, "Highly efficient broadband second harmonic generation using polydomain epitaxial barium titanate thin film waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) 221103.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, J. Zi, "Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4704-4706 (2003).

T. Sünner, M. Gellner, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, "Group delay measurements on photonic crystal resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 151117.

D. P. Gaillot, E. Graugnard, J. Blair, C. J. Summers, "Dispersion control in two-dimensional superlattice photonic crystal slab waveguides by atomic layer deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) 181123.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, R. T. Chen, "80-micrometer interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, (2005) 221105.

B. Li, J. Zhou, L. Li, X. J. Wang, X. H. Liu, J. Zi, "Ferroelectric inverse opals with electrically tunable photonic band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4704-4706 (2003).

T. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, M. Kondo, M. Tsukada, K. Kurihara, N. Kamehara, "Micropatterned epitaxial (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O $_{3}$ thin films on Nb-doped SrTiO $_{3}$ substrates by a chemical solution deposition process with resist molds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2580-2582 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Fabry–Perot intensity modulator with integrated Bragg reflectors in Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$," Electron. Lett. 41, 1220-1222 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Distributed Bragg feedback intensity modulator in Ti:LiNbO$_{3}$," Electron. Lett. 41, 1028-1030 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Berrier, R. Ferrini, A. Talneau, R. Houdré, S. Anand, "Impact of feature-size dependent etching on the optical properties of photonic crystal devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 096106.

K. Dayal, K. Bhattacharya, "Active tuning of photonic device characteristics by ferroelectric domain switching," J. Appl. Phys. 102, (2007) 064102.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. F. Taylor, "Enhanced electrooptic modulation efficiency utilizing slow-wave optical propagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1875-1883 (1999).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. T. Lin, Z. Liu, B. W. Wessels, "Ferroelectric thin film photonic crystal waveguide and its electro-optic properties," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 075005 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Xiong, H. Fukshima, "Analysis of light propagation in index-tunable photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1286-1288 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. C. Mathias, N. L. Ganesh, W. Zhang, B. T. Cunningham, "Graded wavelength one-dimensional photonic crystal reveals spectral characteristics of enhanced fluorescence," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 094320.

R.-J. Liu, Z.-Y. Li, Z.-F. Feng, B.-Y. Cheng, D.-Z. Zhang, "Channel-drop filters in three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) 094514.

Nature (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

Nature Mater. (2)

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. V. Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, G. A. Ozin, "From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals," Nature Mater. 5, 179-184 (2006).

M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nature Mater. 3, 211-219 (2004).

Nature Photon. (1)

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, Q. Gong, "Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity," Nature Photon. 2, 185-189 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Tang, D. Towner, T. Hamano, A. Meier, B. Wessels, "Electrooptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 5962-5967 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. B. Khurgin, J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, "Ultrabroad-bandwidth electro-optic modulator based on a cascaded Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 25, 70-72 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Hu, Q. Gong, S. Feng, B. Cheng, D. Zhang, "Tunable multichannel filter in nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal," Opt. Commun. 253, 138-144 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (7)

S. T. -Hanic, C. M. de Sterke1, M. J. Steel1, B. J. Eggleton1, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "High-Q cavities in multilayer photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 15, 17248-17253 (2007).

J. B. -Abad, A. Rodriguez, P. Bermel, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, "Enhanced nonlinear optics in photonic-crystal microcavities," Opt. Exp. 15, 16161-16176 (2007).

A. Jugessur, L. Wu, A. Bakhtazad, A. Kirk, T. Krauss, R. De La Rue, "Compact and integrated 2-D photonic crystal super-prism filter-device for wavelength demultiplexing applications," Opt. Exp. 14, 1632-1642 (2006).

C. Xudong, C. Hafner, R. Vahldieck, "Design of ultra-compact metallo-dielectric photonic crystal filters," Opt. Exp. 13, 6175-6180 (2005).

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, A. G. Iglesias1, T. F. Krauss1, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 6227-6232 (2008).

S. Madden, B. L. Davies, D. Freeman, "Fabrication of planar photonic crystals in a chalcogenide glass using a focused ion beam," Opt. Exp. 13, 3079-3086 (2005).

Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, "Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 12, 3988-3995 (2004).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, C. Menzel, F. Lederer, "Resonant Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts at photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. A 77, (2008) 053802.

Phys. Rev. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. H. Hoerman, B. M. Nichols, B. W. Wessels, "Dynamic response of the dielectric and electro-optic properties of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films," Phys. Rev. B 65, 224110 (2002).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Takeda, K. Yoshino, "Tunable photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals by temporal modulation based on the pockels effect," Phys. Rev. E 69, (2004) 016605.

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Topolancik, B. Ilic, F. Vollmer, "Experimental observation of strong photon localization in disordered photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007) 253901.

Other (6)

R. O. Wayne, Light and Video Microscopy (Academic, 2008).

O. K. Ersoy, Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging (Wiley-Interscience, 2006).

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2005).

P. T. Lin, B. W. Wessels, A. Imre, L. E. Ocola, Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (Opt. Soc. of Amer. , 2008).

Y. Leng, Materials Characterization: Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods (Wiley, 2008) (Wiley, 1).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2004).

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