Abstract

Recently, higher order modulation formats are intensively investigated to further increase spectral efficiency for building next generation optical transport networks. Direct detection receivers are capable of detecting arbitrary modulation formats with differentially encoded phases such as differentially phase shift keying (DPSK) and star shaped quadrature amplitude modulation (Star QAM) formats. In an earlier publication of the authors (M. Seimetz , “Optical systems with high-order DPSK and star QAM modulation based on interferometric direct detection,” J. Lightw. Technol. , vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1515–1530, Jun. 2007) a system analysis was performed where performance was mainly characterized by eye opening penalties. Here, these investigations are extended. A tool for semi-analytical BER estimation is developed allowing to calculate the BER down to small values such as $10^{-9}$ for a wide range of modulation formats, as well as for different receiver structures. Using this module, the back-to-back OSNR requirements are calculated. CD and SPM tolerances are characterized by optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties at ${\hbox {BER}} = 10^{-9}$. As far as the authors know, this is the first analysis of the transmission characteristics of optical 16DPSK and Star 16QAM based on the BER. Moreover, further novel aspects such as optimization of the optical and electrical receiver filter bandwidths are investigated.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. M. Seimetz, "Optical systems with high-order DPSK and star QAM modulation based on interferometric direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1515-1530 (2007).
  2. M. Rohde, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).
  3. P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).
  4. C. Wree, "Differential quadrature phase-shift keying for cost-effective doubling of the capacity in existing WDM systems," Proc. 4th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2003) pp. 161-168.
  5. W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).
  6. M. Ohm, "Optical 8-DPSK and receiver with direct detection and multilevel electrical signals," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Adv. Modulation Formats (2004) pp. 45-46.
  7. H. Yoon, "Performance comparison of optical 8-ary differential phase-shift keying systems with different electrical decision schemes," Opt. Exp. 13, 371-376 (2005).
  8. M. Serbay, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at $3\times 10.7~{\rm Gb/s}$," Proc. 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (2005).
  9. S. Tsukamonto, "Coherent demodulation of optical 8-phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2006).
  10. M. Seimetz, "Coherent RZ-8PSK transmission at 30 Gbit/s over 1200 km employing homodyne detection with digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2007) pp. 265-266.
  11. R. Freund, "30 Gbit/s RZ-8-PSK transmission over 2800 km standard single mode fibre without inline dispersion compensation," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2008).
  12. X. Zhou, "$8 \times 114~{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$, 25-GHz-spaced, polmux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2008).
  13. M. Seimetz, Optical fiber transmission systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation Ph.D. dissertation Technische Univ. BerlinBerlin (2008).
  14. M. Ohm, J. Speidel, "Receiver sensitivity, chromatic dispersion tolerance and optimal receiver bandwidths for 40 Gbit/s 8-level optical ASK-DQPSK and optical 8-DPSK," Proc. 6th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2005) pp. 211-217.
  15. K. Sekine, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2004).
  16. Y. Mori, "17 Tb/s ($161 \times 114~{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$) polMUX-RZ-8PSK transmission over 662 km of ultra-low loss fiber using C-band EDFA amplification and digital coherent detection," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).
  17. T. Sakamota, "50-km SMF transmission of 50-Gb/s 16 QAM generated by quad-parallel MZM," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).
  18. P. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).
  19. M. Nakazawa, "Polarization-multiplexed 1 Gsymbol/s, 64 QAM (12 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 150 km with an optical bandwidth of 2 GHZ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2007).
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  24. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
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2007 (1)

M. Seimetz, "Optical systems with high-order DPSK and star QAM modulation based on interferometric direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1515-1530 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

2005 (3)

W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).

H. Yoon, "Performance comparison of optical 8-ary differential phase-shift keying systems with different electrical decision schemes," Opt. Exp. 13, 371-376 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2000 (1)

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Rohde, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).

1990 (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Rohde, "Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems," Electron. Lett. 36, 1483-1484 (1999).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Seimetz, "Optical systems with high-order DPSK and star QAM modulation based on interferometric direct detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1515-1530 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

H. Yoon, "Performance comparison of optical 8-ary differential phase-shift keying systems with different electrical decision schemes," Opt. Exp. 13, 371-376 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Rosenkranz, "Robust multi-level phase shift modulation in high-speed WDM transmission," Proc. SPIE 5625, 241-252 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Other (19)

C. Wree, "Differential quadrature phase-shift keying for cost-effective doubling of the capacity in existing WDM systems," Proc. 4th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2003) pp. 161-168.

M. Ohm, "Optical 8-DPSK and receiver with direct detection and multilevel electrical signals," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Workshop Adv. Modulation Formats (2004) pp. 45-46.

S. Randel, Analysis of fibre-optic transmission systems with wavelength-division multiplex at 160 Gb/s data rate per channel Ph.D. dissertation Technische Universität BerlinBerlin (2005).

M. Seimetz, Optical receiver for reception of M-ary star-shaped quadrature amplitude modulation with differentially encoded phases and its application. Patent Granted at the German Patent and Trade Mark Office DE 10 2006 030 915.4 (2006).

M. C. Jeruchim, Simulation of Communication Systems—Modeling, Methodology and Techniques (Kluwer/Plenum, 2000).

M. Serbay, "Experimental investigation of RZ-8DPSK at $3\times 10.7~{\rm Gb/s}$," Proc. 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (2005).

S. Tsukamonto, "Coherent demodulation of optical 8-phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2006).

M. Seimetz, "Coherent RZ-8PSK transmission at 30 Gbit/s over 1200 km employing homodyne detection with digital carrier phase estimation," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2007) pp. 265-266.

R. Freund, "30 Gbit/s RZ-8-PSK transmission over 2800 km standard single mode fibre without inline dispersion compensation," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2008).

X. Zhou, "$8 \times 114~{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$, 25-GHz-spaced, polmux-RZ-8PSK transmission over 640 km of SSMF employing digital coherent detection and EDFA-only amplification," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2008).

M. Seimetz, Optical fiber transmission systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation Ph.D. dissertation Technische Univ. BerlinBerlin (2008).

M. Ohm, J. Speidel, "Receiver sensitivity, chromatic dispersion tolerance and optimal receiver bandwidths for 40 Gbit/s 8-level optical ASK-DQPSK and optical 8-DPSK," Proc. 6th Conf. Photon. Netw. (2005) pp. 211-217.

K. Sekine, "Proposal and demonstration of 10-Gsymbol/sec 16-ary (40 Gbit/s) optical modulation/demodulation scheme," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2004).

Y. Mori, "17 Tb/s ($161 \times 114~{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$) polMUX-RZ-8PSK transmission over 662 km of ultra-low loss fiber using C-band EDFA amplification and digital coherent detection," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).

T. Sakamota, "50-km SMF transmission of 50-Gb/s 16 QAM generated by quad-parallel MZM," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).

P. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, "112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM on a 25-GHz WDM grid," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2008).

M. Nakazawa, "Polarization-multiplexed 1 Gsymbol/s, 64 QAM (12 Gbit/s) coherent optical transmission over 150 km with an optical bandwidth of 2 GHZ," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2007).

A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, 1971).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1984).

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