Abstract

Focused-ion-beam directly milling strategy was used to fabricate photonic resonators on crystalline silicon-on-insulator substrate. In order to reduce damages such as implanting ions, amorphous layers and re-deposition process which are induced by the ions, a sacrificed silica layer was used as an etching mask and a silicon thermal oxidation process was performed. The transmission spectra of both photonic crystal cavities and micro-ring resonators were measured. The resulting data demonstrate that the Q factors are significantly improved after the oxidation treatment.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
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  5. P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).
  6. S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2891-2893 (2005).
  7. M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, D. Joannopoulos, "Optical bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E. 66, 055601(R) (2002).
  8. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  9. Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081113 (2008).
  10. Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
  11. F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).
  12. Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, M. Qiu, "Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 16, 4621- (2008).
  13. J. Tian, C. Ren, S. Feng, Y. Z. Liu, H. H. Tiao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, "Optical properties of the direct-coupled Y-branch filters by using photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. 15, 2471-2475 (2006).
  14. C. Ren, J. Tian, S. Feng, H. H. Tao, Y. Z. Liu, K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, H. F. Yang, "High resolution three-port filter in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 14, 10014-10020 (2006).
  15. Z. Y. Zhang, M. Qiu, "Coupled-mode analysis of a resonant channel drop filter using waveguides with mirror boundaries," J. Opt. Amer. B 23, 104-113 (2006).
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  20. T. Tao, W. Wilkinson, J. Melngailis, "Focused ion beam induced deposition of platinum for repair process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 162-164 (1991).
  21. X. Y. Hu, Y. H. Liu, J. Tian, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, "Ultrafast all optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121102 (2005).
  22. M. Sun, J. Tian, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, H. F. Yang, "The role of periodicity in enhanced transmission through subwavelength holes array," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 486-488 (2006).
  23. J. M. Caltrney, R. D. Smith, P. R. Munroe, "Transmission electron microscope specimen preparation of metal matrix compodotes using the focused ion beam miller," Mictosc. Microanal. 6, 452-462 (2000).
  24. R. M. Langford, A. K. Petford-Long, "Reduction the sidewall damage and gallium concentration of focused ion beam prepared TEM cross sections," Proc. EUREM (2000) pp. 557-558.
  25. N. I. Kato, Y. Kohno, H. Saka, "Side-wall damage in a transmission electron microscopy specimen of crystalline Si prepeared by focused ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1201-1204 (1999).
  26. C. R. Hutchinson, R. E. Hackenberg, G. J. Shiflter, "A compareison of EDS microanalysis in FIB-prepared and electropolished thin foils," Ultramicroscopy 94, 37-48 (2003).
  27. S. Rubanov, P. R. Munroe, "FIB-induced damages in silicon," J. Microscopy 214, 213-221 (2003).
  28. Y. Tanaka, M. Tymczenko, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab point-defect cavity employing local three-dimensional structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6096-6102 (2006).
  29. X. L. Fu, P. G. Li, A. Z. Jin, L. M. Chen, H. F. Yang, L. H. Li, W. H. Tang, Z. Cui, "Gas-assisted etching of niobium with focused ion beam," Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 29-33 (2005).
  30. J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating coupler in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816-818 (2007).
  31. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamachika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

2008 (3)

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081113 (2008).

F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, M. Qiu, "Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 16, 4621- (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).

J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating coupler in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816-818 (2007).

2006 (5)

Y. Tanaka, M. Tymczenko, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab point-defect cavity employing local three-dimensional structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6096-6102 (2006).

M. Sun, J. Tian, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, H. F. Yang, "The role of periodicity in enhanced transmission through subwavelength holes array," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 486-488 (2006).

J. Tian, C. Ren, S. Feng, Y. Z. Liu, H. H. Tiao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, "Optical properties of the direct-coupled Y-branch filters by using photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. 15, 2471-2475 (2006).

C. Ren, J. Tian, S. Feng, H. H. Tao, Y. Z. Liu, K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, H. F. Yang, "High resolution three-port filter in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 14, 10014-10020 (2006).

Z. Y. Zhang, M. Qiu, "Coupled-mode analysis of a resonant channel drop filter using waveguides with mirror boundaries," J. Opt. Amer. B 23, 104-113 (2006).

2005 (7)

X. Y. Hu, Y. H. Liu, J. Tian, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, "Ultrafast all optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121102 (2005).

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2891-2893 (2005).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavity," App. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112- (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

X. L. Fu, P. G. Li, A. Z. Jin, L. M. Chen, H. F. Yang, L. H. Li, W. H. Tang, Z. Cui, "Gas-assisted etching of niobium with focused ion beam," Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 29-33 (2005).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamachika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

2004 (3)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, H.-Y. Ryu, "Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystals slabs," Opt. Exp. 12, 1551-1561 (2004).

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).

J. Niehusman, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).

2003 (2)

C. R. Hutchinson, R. E. Hackenberg, G. J. Shiflter, "A compareison of EDS microanalysis in FIB-prepared and electropolished thin foils," Ultramicroscopy 94, 37-48 (2003).

S. Rubanov, P. R. Munroe, "FIB-induced damages in silicon," J. Microscopy 214, 213-221 (2003).

2002 (2)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quant. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, D. Joannopoulos, "Optical bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E. 66, 055601(R) (2002).

2000 (1)

J. M. Caltrney, R. D. Smith, P. R. Munroe, "Transmission electron microscope specimen preparation of metal matrix compodotes using the focused ion beam miller," Mictosc. Microanal. 6, 452-462 (2000).

1999 (2)

N. I. Kato, Y. Kohno, H. Saka, "Side-wall damage in a transmission electron microscopy specimen of crystalline Si prepeared by focused ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1201-1204 (1999).

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).

1991 (1)

T. Tao, W. Wilkinson, J. Melngailis, "Focused ion beam induced deposition of platinum for repair process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 162-164 (1991).

1987 (1)

J. Melngailis, "Focused ion beam technology and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B5 2, 469-495 (1987).

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, "All-optical switching on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavity," App. Phys. Lett. 87, 151112- (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081113 (2008).

X. Y. Hu, Y. H. Liu, J. Tian, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, "Ultrafast all optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121102 (2005).

Chin. Phys. (1)

J. Tian, C. Ren, S. Feng, Y. Z. Liu, H. H. Tiao, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, "Optical properties of the direct-coupled Y-branch filters by using photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. 15, 2471-2475 (2006).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Sun, J. Tian, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, H. F. Yang, "The role of periodicity in enhanced transmission through subwavelength holes array," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 486-488 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Schrauwen, F. V. Laere, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focused-ion-beam fabrication of slanted grating coupler in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 816-818 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quant. Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quant. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamachika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

J. Opt. Amer. B (1)

Z. Y. Zhang, M. Qiu, "Coupled-mode analysis of a resonant channel drop filter using waveguides with mirror boundaries," J. Opt. Amer. B 23, 104-113 (2006).

J. Microscopy (1)

S. Rubanov, P. R. Munroe, "FIB-induced damages in silicon," J. Microscopy 214, 213-221 (2003).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Tao, W. Wilkinson, J. Melngailis, "Focused ion beam induced deposition of platinum for repair process," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 162-164 (1991).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

N. I. Kato, Y. Kohno, H. Saka, "Side-wall damage in a transmission electron microscopy specimen of crystalline Si prepeared by focused ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1201-1204 (1999).

J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B5 (1)

J. Melngailis, "Focused ion beam technology and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Techol. B5 2, 469-495 (1987).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Tanaka, M. Tymczenko, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab point-defect cavity employing local three-dimensional structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6096-6102 (2006).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

X. L. Fu, P. G. Li, A. Z. Jin, L. M. Chen, H. F. Yang, L. H. Li, W. H. Tang, Z. Cui, "Gas-assisted etching of niobium with focused ion beam," Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 29-33 (2005).

Mictosc. Microanal. (1)

J. M. Caltrney, R. D. Smith, P. R. Munroe, "Transmission electron microscope specimen preparation of metal matrix compodotes using the focused ion beam miller," Mictosc. Microanal. 6, 452-462 (2000).

Nat. Mater. (2)

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Nature (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, H.-Y. Ryu, "Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystals slabs," Opt. Exp. 12, 1551-1561 (2004).

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, M. Qiu, "Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 16, 4621- (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

C. Ren, J. Tian, S. Feng, H. H. Tao, Y. Z. Liu, K. Ren, Z. Y. Li, B. Y. Cheng, D. Z. Zhang, H. F. Yang, "High resolution three-port filter in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Exp. 14, 10014-10020 (2006).

P. Dong, S. F. Preble, M. Lipson, "All-optical compact silicon comb switch," Opt. Exp. 15, 9600-9605 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E. (1)

M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, Y. Fink, D. Joannopoulos, "Optical bistable switching in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E. 66, 055601(R) (2002).

Ultramicroscopy (1)

C. R. Hutchinson, R. E. Hackenberg, G. J. Shiflter, "A compareison of EDS microanalysis in FIB-prepared and electropolished thin foils," Ultramicroscopy 94, 37-48 (2003).

Other (1)

R. M. Langford, A. K. Petford-Long, "Reduction the sidewall damage and gallium concentration of focused ion beam prepared TEM cross sections," Proc. EUREM (2000) pp. 557-558.

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