Abstract

Judd–Ofelt analysis is performed on measurements of bulk samples of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$- and ${\rm Ho}^{3+}$-doped tellurite glass from which the host-dependent Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters are extracted. These have then been used to calculate the radiative rates and branching ratios in this particular material system. A rate-equation approach is then used to model an experimentally realized ${\sim {\hbox {2.1}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}/{\rm Ho}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fiber laser and extract values of the energy transfer and upconversion rate parameters in ${\rm TeO}_{2}-{\rm ZnO}-{\rm Na}_{2}{\rm O}$ (TZN) glass. Excellent agreement is found between simulated and experimental data, which indicates the validity of the approach.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).
  3. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).
  4. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, "Efficient ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 402-404 (2008).
  5. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, "${\rm Tm}^{3+}/{\rm Ho}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 1282-1284 (2008).
  6. A. Krier, Ed., Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics Springer (2006).
  7. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).
  8. R. Caspary, U. B. Unrau, Properties, Processing and Applications of Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres (IEE, 1998) pp. 224-235.
  9. M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
  10. W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).
  11. K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).
  12. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).
  13. M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).
  14. G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).
  15. N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
  16. H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).
  17. E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).
  18. N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).
  19. X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).
  20. M. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001) pp. 36-37.
  21. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).
  22. N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Multicolor upconversion emission from ${\rm Tm}^{3+} + {\rm Ho }^{3+} + {\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations," Appl. Phys. B 91, 437-441 (2008).
  23. J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).
  24. C. A. Evans, Z. Ikonić, B. Richards, P. Harrison, A. Jha, "Theoretical modeling of a ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser: The influence of cross relaxation," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  25. G. Armagan, B. M. Walsh, N. P. Walsh, E. A. Modlin, A. M. Buoncristiani, OSA Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1994) pp. 141-145.
  26. M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).

2004 (2)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).

L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).

2002 (1)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ emission in ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).

1998 (1)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

1995 (1)

G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).

1977 (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).

1972 (1)

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).

1967 (2)

K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

1965 (1)

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Multicolor upconversion emission from ${\rm Tm}^{3+} + {\rm Ho }^{3+} + {\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations," Appl. Phys. B 91, 437-441 (2008).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. A. Evans, Z. Ikonić, B. Richards, P. Harrison, A. Jha, "Theoretical modeling of a ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser: The influence of cross relaxation," J. Lightw. Technol. .

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ emission in ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).

Spec. Acta. Part A (2)

N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).

Other (4)

G. Armagan, B. M. Walsh, N. P. Walsh, E. A. Modlin, A. M. Buoncristiani, OSA Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1994) pp. 141-145.

R. Caspary, U. B. Unrau, Properties, Processing and Applications of Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres (IEE, 1998) pp. 224-235.

A. Krier, Ed., Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics Springer (2006).

M. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001) pp. 36-37.

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