Abstract

Judd–Ofelt analysis is performed on measurements of bulk samples of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$- and ${\rm Ho}^{3+}$-doped tellurite glass from which the host-dependent Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters are extracted. These have then been used to calculate the radiative rates and branching ratios in this particular material system. A rate-equation approach is then used to model an experimentally realized ${\sim {\hbox {2.1}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}/{\rm Ho}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fiber laser and extract values of the energy transfer and upconversion rate parameters in ${\rm TeO}_{2}-{\rm ZnO}-{\rm Na}_{2}{\rm O}$ (TZN) glass. Excellent agreement is found between simulated and experimental data, which indicates the validity of the approach.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).
  3. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).
  4. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, "Efficient ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 402-404 (2008).
  5. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, A. Jha, "${\rm Tm}^{3+}/{\rm Ho}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 1282-1284 (2008).
  6. A. Krier, Ed., Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics Springer (2006).
  7. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).
  8. R. Caspary, U. B. Unrau, Properties, Processing and Applications of Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres (IEE, 1998) pp. 224-235.
  9. M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
  10. W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).
  11. K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).
  12. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).
  13. M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).
  14. G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).
  15. N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
  16. H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).
  17. E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).
  18. N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).
  19. X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).
  20. M. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001) pp. 36-37.
  21. S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).
  22. N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Multicolor upconversion emission from ${\rm Tm}^{3+} + {\rm Ho }^{3+} + {\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations," Appl. Phys. B 91, 437-441 (2008).
  23. J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).
  24. C. A. Evans, Z. Ikonić, B. Richards, P. Harrison, A. Jha, "Theoretical modeling of a ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser: The influence of cross relaxation," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  25. G. Armagan, B. M. Walsh, N. P. Walsh, E. A. Modlin, A. M. Buoncristiani, OSA Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1994) pp. 141-145.
  26. M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).

2004 (2)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).

L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).

2002 (1)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ emission in ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).

1998 (1)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).

1997 (1)

M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

1995 (1)

G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).

1977 (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).

1972 (1)

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).

1967 (2)

K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

1965 (1)

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. K. Giri, D. K. Rai, S. B. Rai, "Multicolor upconversion emission from ${\rm Tm}^{3+} + {\rm Ho }^{3+} + {\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ codoped tellurite glass on NIR excitations," Appl. Phys. B 91, 437-441 (2008).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, "Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for ${\rm Tm}^{3+}~ (4f ^{12})$ in phosphate and tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, N. P. Barnes, "Efficient thulium-doped 2-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ germanate fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 334-336 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ pumped Tm-Ho-doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1578-1587 (1998).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

G. Ghosh, "Sellmeier coefficients and chromatic dispersions for some tellurite glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2828-2830 (1995).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

K. Rajnak, W. F. Krupke, "Energy levels of ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaCl }_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 46, 3532-3542 (1967).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels of trivalent thulium lanthanide aquo ions. II. ${\rm Gd }^{3+}$," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4443-4446 (1968).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

E. R. Taylor, L. N. Ng, N. P. Sessions, H. Buerger, "Spectroscopy of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses for 1470 nm fiber amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 112-117 (2002).

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, U. N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent ${\rm Tm}^{3+}$ and ${\rm Ho }^{3+}$ in ${\rm YLiF} _{4}$ and ${\rm LuLiF }_{4}$," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004).

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, E. Y.-B. Pun, "Optical transitions and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Ho}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ doped bismuth tellurite glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 1-7 (2007).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, G. T. Surratt, "Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$ and ${\rm YAlO}_{3}$," J. Chem. Phys. 57, 562-567 (1972).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. A. Evans, Z. Ikonić, B. Richards, P. Harrison, A. Jha, "Theoretical modeling of a ${\sim {\hbox {2}}}\,\mu{\hbox {m}}\,{\rm Tm}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite fiber laser: The influence of cross relaxation," J. Lightw. Technol. .

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Huang, S. Shen, A. Jha, "Near infrared spectroscopic investigation of ${\rm Tm}^{3+}-{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ co-doped tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 349-353 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mat. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mat. 3, 187-203 (1994).

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Falconieri, A. Lanzi, G. Salvetti, A. Toncelli, "Fluorescence dynamics in an optically-excited Tm-Ho:YAG crystal," Opt. Mater. 7, 135-143 (1997).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5- $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ emission in ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ -doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of ${\hbox {Er}}^{3+}$ in ${\rm LaF }_{3}$," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

W. F. Krupke, J. B. Gruber, "Optical-absorption intensities of rare-earth ions in crystals: The absorption spectrum of thulium ethyl sulfate," Phys. Rev. 139, 2008-2016 (1965).

Spec. Acta. Part A (2)

N. K. Giri, A. K. Singh, S. B. Rai, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of Tm and energy transfer studies between Tm and Er codoped in lithium tellurite network," Spec. Acta. Part A 68, 117-122 (2007).

H. Lin, K. Liu, L. Lin, Y. Hou, D. Yang, T. Ma, E. Y. B. Pun, Q. An, J. Yu, S. Tanabe, "Optical parameters and upconversion fluorescence in ${\rm Tm}^{3+} /{\hbox {Yb}}^{3+}$ -doped alkali-barium-bismuth-tellurite glasses," Spec. Acta. Part A 65, 702-707 (2006).

Other (4)

R. Caspary, U. B. Unrau, Properties, Processing and Applications of Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres (IEE, 1998) pp. 224-235.

A. Krier, Ed., Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics Springer (2006).

M. Digonnet, Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers (Marcel Dekker, 2001) pp. 36-37.

G. Armagan, B. M. Walsh, N. P. Walsh, E. A. Modlin, A. M. Buoncristiani, OSA Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1994) pp. 141-145.

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