Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the enhancement of $\chi^{(2)} $ nonlinear process in membrane-type circular photonic crystal (PhC) based on GaAs. This unconventional kind of PhC is well suited for the generation of whispering gallery modes (WGMs) due to the circular symmetric periodic pattern. By using a laser Gaussian beam at 1.55 $ \mu{\hbox {m}}$ as pump signal, a WGM at 1.55 $ \mu{\hbox {m}}$ and a second-harmonic (SH) mode at 0.775 $ \mu{\hbox {m}}$ are obtained. The SH will be generated in the center of the missing-hole microcavity. The periodic pattern and the microcavity are tailored and optimized providing an SH efficiency conversion as high as 50%. We predict the resonances by an accurate 2-D time-domain model including $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinearity and by a 3-D finite-element method. Finally, by using a 3-D membrane configuration, we found a total quality factor of the SH mode of the order of 35 000.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (4)

J. I. Dadap, "Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles," Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322-1-205322-18 (2008).

S. Boscolo, S. K. Turitsyn, K. J. Blow, "Nonlinear loop mirror-based all-optical signal processing in fiber-optic communications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 299-316 (2008).

A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Photonic crystal drop filter exploiting resonant cavity configuration," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 10-13 (2008).

A. Massaro, V. Errico, T. Stomeo, A. Salhi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, M. D. Vittorio, "3D FEM modeling and fabrication of circular photonic crystal microcavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2960-2968 (2008).

2007 (7)

A. M. Zheltikov, "Limiting efficiencies of second-harmonic generation and cascaded $\chi ^{(2)}$ processes in quadratically nonlinear photonic nanowires," Opt. Comm. 270, 402-406 (2007).

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, J. H. Fan, F. M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity laser realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic bandgap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125-1-151125-3 (2007).

P. A. Postigo, A.R. Alija, L.J. Martíneza, M.L. Dotora, D. Golmayoa, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Gallid, A. Politi, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, "Laser nanosources based on planar photonic crystal as new platforms for nanophotonics devices," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 79-85 (2007).

D. Antonucci, D. De Ceglia, A. D. Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Enhancement of the SHG efficiency in a doubly-resonant 2D-photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 353-360 (2007).

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, T. Weimann, "Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).

J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, R. Fischer, S. Saltiel, K. Staliunas, R. Herrero, R. Vilaseca, D. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, Y. Kivshar, "Second-harmonic parametric scattering in ferroelectric crystals with disordered nonlinear domain structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 15868-15877 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, S. Park, J. Kim, M. Kim, M. Lee, "Wavelength conversion in nonlinear optical polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241106-1-241106-3 (2006).

L. Chen, E. Towe, "Design of high-${Q}$ microcavities for proposed two-dimensional electrically pumped photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 117-123 (2006).

2004 (3)

M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nature. 3, 211-219 (2004).

F. F. Ren, R. Li, C. Cheng, H. T. Wang, J. R. Qiu, J. H. Si, K. Hirao, "Giant enhancement of second harmonic generation in a finite photonic crystal with a single defect and dual-localized modes," Phys. Rev. B 70, 245109-1-245109-4 (2004).

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).

2002 (1)

T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38, 967-968 (2002).

2000 (1)

M. A. Alsumaidi, H. M. Masoudi, J. M. Arnold, "A time domain algorithm for the analysis of second-harmonic generation in nonlinear optical structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 395-397 (2000).

1997 (1)

J. F. Lee, R. Lee, A. Cangellaris, "Time-domain finite-element methods," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 430-442 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, S. Park, J. Kim, M. Kim, M. Lee, "Wavelength conversion in nonlinear optical polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241106-1-241106-3 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. T. Lee, T. W. Lu, J. H. Fan, F. M. Tsai, "High quality factor microcavity laser realized by circular photonic crystal with isotropic photonic bandgap effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151125-1-151125-3 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Yoshie, O. B. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. G. Deppe, A. Scherer, "Quantum dot photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 38, 967-968 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Chen, E. Towe, "Design of high-${Q}$ microcavities for proposed two-dimensional electrically pumped photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 117-123 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, T. Weimann, "Laser diode-pumped organic semiconductor lasers utilizing two-dimensional photonic crystal resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. D'Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Photonic crystal drop filter exploiting resonant cavity configuration," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 10-13 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Alsumaidi, H. M. Masoudi, J. M. Arnold, "A time domain algorithm for the analysis of second-harmonic generation in nonlinear optical structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 395-397 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. F. Lee, R. Lee, A. Cangellaris, "Time-domain finite-element methods," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 430-442 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Massaro, V. Errico, T. Stomeo, A. Salhi, R. Cingolani, A. Passaseo, M. D. Vittorio, "3D FEM modeling and fabrication of circular photonic crystal microcavity," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2960-2968 (2008).

Nature (1)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).

Nature Nanotechnol. (1)

N. Ganesh, W. Zhang, P. C. Mathias, E. Chow, J. A. N. T. Soares, V. Malyarchuk, A. D. Smith, B. T. Cunningham, "Enhanced fluorescence emission from quantum dots on a photonic crystal surface," Nature Nanotechnol. 2, 515-520 (2007).

Nature. (1)

M. Soljacic, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals," Nature. 3, 211-219 (2004).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Antonucci, D. De Ceglia, A. D. Orazio, M. De Sario, V. Marrocco, V. Petruzzelli, F. Prudenzano, "Enhancement of the SHG efficiency in a doubly-resonant 2D-photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 353-360 (2007).

Opt. Comm. (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, "Limiting efficiencies of second-harmonic generation and cascaded $\chi ^{(2)}$ processes in quadratically nonlinear photonic nanowires," Opt. Comm. 270, 402-406 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. Trull, C. Cojocaru, R. Fischer, S. Saltiel, K. Staliunas, R. Herrero, R. Vilaseca, D. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, Y. Kivshar, "Second-harmonic parametric scattering in ferroelectric crystals with disordered nonlinear domain structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 15868-15877 (2007).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. Boscolo, S. K. Turitsyn, K. J. Blow, "Nonlinear loop mirror-based all-optical signal processing in fiber-optic communications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 14, 299-316 (2008).

Photon. Nanostruct. (1)

P. A. Postigo, A.R. Alija, L.J. Martíneza, M.L. Dotora, D. Golmayoa, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Gallid, A. Politi, M. Patrini, L.C. Andreani, "Laser nanosources based on planar photonic crystal as new platforms for nanophotonics devices," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 79-85 (2007).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. F. Ren, R. Li, C. Cheng, H. T. Wang, J. R. Qiu, J. H. Si, K. Hirao, "Giant enhancement of second harmonic generation in a finite photonic crystal with a single defect and dual-localized modes," Phys. Rev. B 70, 245109-1-245109-4 (2004).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. I. Dadap, "Optical second-harmonic scattering from cylindrical particles," Phys. Rev. B 78, 205322-1-205322-18 (2008).

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (New York: Wiley, 1988) pp. 116-120.

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