Abstract

A new approach for multiplexing interferometric fiber optic sensors is described and studied. The approach is based on a lattice of unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometers. This configuration is inherently low-loss and can be implemented and deployed in a simple manner. The signals from the cascaded sensors are extracted from the measured data via a layer peeling algorithm. A fifth-order polarimetric implementation of the proposed multiplexing technique has been constructed and characterized. The third sensor was buried in a sandbox while the rest of the sensors were spooled on a bobbin. The system successfully separated and monitored the pressure variations in the different sensors with minor crosstalk.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, "Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1488-1500 (1996).
  2. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Analysis of crosstalk in a multiplexed eight-element interferometric fiber sensor array," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (1988) pp. 191-194.
  3. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Multiplexed Mach–Zehnder ladder array with ten sensor elements," Electron. Lett. 25, 1298-1299 (1989).
  4. I. Sakai, "Frequency-division multiplexing of optical-fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source," Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 279-289 (1986).
  5. I. Sakai, G. Parry, R. C. Youngquist, "Multiplexing fiberoptic sensors by frequency-modulation—Cross-term considerations," Opt. Lett. 11, 183-185 (1986).
  6. I. Sakai, R. C. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).
  7. D. T. Jong, K. Hotate, "Frequency-division multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using an optical delay loop with a frequency shifter," Appl. Opt. 28, 1289-1297 (1989).
  8. H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexed sensor network employing birefringent-fibre WDMs," Opt. Commun. 131, 290-294 (1996).
  9. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  10. A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a hybrid time/wavelength division multiplexed interferometric fibre sensor array," Electron. Lett. 27, 554-555 (1991).
  11. L. Wuu-Wen, H. Shih-Chu, T. Jiunn-Song, H. Shorn-Chien, "System design and optimization of optically amplified WDM-TDM hybrid polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 348-359 (2000).
  12. J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1062-1072 (1985).
  13. G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, R. Crickmore, "Large-scale remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).
  14. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).
  15. V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength-division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).
  16. R. Hernandez-Lorenzo, M. Lopez-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus networks with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).
  17. C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. I. Signal-to-noise ratio," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-223 (1998).
  18. C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. Part II: Pump power," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 224-231 (1998).
  19. J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).
  20. C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale fiber interferometric sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (1997).
  21. S. Diaz, B. Cerrolaza, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "Double Raman amplified bus networks for wavelength-division multiplexing of fiber-optic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 733-739 (2007).
  22. K. Jinguji, M. Oguma, "Optical half-band filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 252-259 (2000).
  23. Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. 143, 263-280 (1996).
  24. K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent 2-port lattice-form optical delay-line circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 73-82 (1995).
  25. L. Moller, "Filter synthesis for broadband PMD compensation in WDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1258-1260 (2000).
  26. A. Eyal, A. Yariv, "Design of broadband PMD compensation filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1088-1090 (2002).
  27. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, K. L. Dorsey, "Transmissive serial interferometric fiber sensor array," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 846-854 (1989).

2007 (1)

S. Diaz, B. Cerrolaza, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "Double Raman amplified bus networks for wavelength-division multiplexing of fiber-optic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 733-739 (2007).

2003 (2)

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, R. Crickmore, "Large-scale remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Eyal, A. Yariv, "Design of broadband PMD compensation filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1088-1090 (2002).

2001 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

2000 (4)

L. Wuu-Wen, H. Shih-Chu, T. Jiunn-Song, H. Shorn-Chien, "System design and optimization of optically amplified WDM-TDM hybrid polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 348-359 (2000).

V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength-division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).

L. Moller, "Filter synthesis for broadband PMD compensation in WDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1258-1260 (2000).

K. Jinguji, M. Oguma, "Optical half-band filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 252-259 (2000).

1998 (3)

R. Hernandez-Lorenzo, M. Lopez-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus networks with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. I. Signal-to-noise ratio," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-223 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. Part II: Pump power," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 224-231 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

1996 (3)

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. 143, 263-280 (1996).

H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexed sensor network employing birefringent-fibre WDMs," Opt. Commun. 131, 290-294 (1996).

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, "Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1488-1500 (1996).

1995 (1)

K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent 2-port lattice-form optical delay-line circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 73-82 (1995).

1991 (1)

A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a hybrid time/wavelength division multiplexed interferometric fibre sensor array," Electron. Lett. 27, 554-555 (1991).

1989 (3)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, K. L. Dorsey, "Transmissive serial interferometric fiber sensor array," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 846-854 (1989).

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Multiplexed Mach–Zehnder ladder array with ten sensor elements," Electron. Lett. 25, 1298-1299 (1989).

D. T. Jong, K. Hotate, "Frequency-division multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using an optical delay loop with a frequency shifter," Appl. Opt. 28, 1289-1297 (1989).

1987 (1)

I. Sakai, R. C. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).

1986 (2)

I. Sakai, G. Parry, R. C. Youngquist, "Multiplexing fiberoptic sensors by frequency-modulation—Cross-term considerations," Opt. Lett. 11, 183-185 (1986).

I. Sakai, "Frequency-division multiplexing of optical-fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source," Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 279-289 (1986).

1985 (1)

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1062-1072 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Multiplexed Mach–Zehnder ladder array with ten sensor elements," Electron. Lett. 25, 1298-1299 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a hybrid time/wavelength division multiplexed interferometric fibre sensor array," Electron. Lett. 27, 554-555 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, K. Daley, S. Motley, A. Bautista, J. Salzano, P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, R. Crickmore, "Large-scale remotely pumped and interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1579-1581 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Moller, "Filter synthesis for broadband PMD compensation in WDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1258-1260 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Eyal, A. Yariv, "Design of broadband PMD compensation filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1088-1090 (2002).

V. Montoya, M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Improved double-fiber-bus with distributed optical amplification for wavelength-division multiplexing of photonic sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1270-1272 (2000).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

I. Sakai, R. C. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).

K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, "Synthesis of coherent 2-port lattice-form optical delay-line circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 73-82 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. C. Huang, W. W. Lin, M. H. Chen, S. C. Hung, H. L. Chao, "Crosstalk analysis and system design of time-division multiplexing of polarization-insensitive fiber optic Michelson interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1488-1500 (1996).

L. Wuu-Wen, H. Shih-Chu, T. Jiunn-Song, H. Shorn-Chien, "System design and optimization of optically amplified WDM-TDM hybrid polarization-insensitive fiber-optic Michelson interferometric sensor," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 348-359 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, H. J. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1062-1072 (1985).

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

R. Hernandez-Lorenzo, M. Lopez-Amo, P. Urquhart, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus networks with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 485-489 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. I. Signal-to-noise ratio," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-223 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers. Part II: Pump power," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 224-231 (1998).

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, K. L. Dorsey, "Transmissive serial interferometric fiber sensor array," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 846-854 (1989).

S. Diaz, B. Cerrolaza, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "Double Raman amplified bus networks for wavelength-division multiplexing of fiber-optic sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 733-739 (2007).

K. Jinguji, M. Oguma, "Optical half-band filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 252-259 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. D. Ford, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexed sensor network employing birefringent-fibre WDMs," Opt. Commun. 131, 290-294 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Sakai, "Frequency-division multiplexing of optical-fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source," Opt. Quantum Electron. 18, 279-289 (1986).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. (1)

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, "Silica-based optical integrated circuits," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. Optoelectron. 143, 263-280 (1996).

Other (2)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, "Analysis of crosstalk in a multiplexed eight-element interferometric fiber sensor array," Proc. 14th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (1988) pp. 191-194.

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale fiber interferometric sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (1997).

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