Abstract

High-index contrast silicon-on-insulator technology enables wavelength-scale compact photonic circuits. We report fabrication of photonic circuits in silicon-on-insulator using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing technology. By switching from advanced optical lithography at 248 to 193 nm, combined with improved dry etching, a substantial improvement in process window, linearity, and proximity effect is achieved. With the developed fabrication process, propagation and bending loss of photonic wires were characterized. Measurements indicate a propagation loss of 2.7 dB/cm for 500-nm photonic wire and an excess bending loss of 0.013 dB/90$^{\circ}$ bend of 5-$\mu $m radius. Through this paper, we demonstrate the suitability of high resolution optical lithography and dry etch processes for mass production of photonic integrated circuits.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
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  3. Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
  4. B. Schmidt, Q. F. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator substrates using cavities with ultra-small modal volumes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3140-3148 (2007).
  5. L. J. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).
  6. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
  7. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).
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  9. W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, H. Kurz, "Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018-2025 (2003).
  10. J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, "Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980-2984 (2003).
  11. http://www.asml.com.
  12. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
  13. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 1583-1591 (2004).
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  19. M. C. Kim, D. Shamiryan, Y. Jung, W. Boullart, C. J. Kang, H. K. Cho, "Effects of various plasma pretreatments on 193 nm photoresist and linewidth roughness after etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2645-2652 (2006).
  20. X. Detter, R. Palla, I. T. Boutherin, E. Pargon, G. Cunge, O. Joubert, L. Vallier, "Impact of chemistry on profile control of resist masked silicon gates etched in high density halogen-based plasmas," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2174-2183 (2003).
  21. T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, P. H. Bolivar, "Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices," Microelectron. Eng. 78โ€“79, 212-217 (2005).
  22. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 45, 16071-6077 (2006).

2008 (1)

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).

2007 (1)

B. Schmidt, Q. F. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator substrates using cavities with ultra-small modal volumes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3140-3148 (2007).

2006 (5)

L. J. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).

M. Settle, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, T. F. Krauss, "Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193 nm optical lithography," Opt. Exp. 14, 2440-2445 (2006).

M. C. Kim, D. Shamiryan, Y. Jung, W. Boullart, C. J. Kang, H. K. Cho, "Effects of various plasma pretreatments on 193 nm photoresist and linewidth roughness after etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2645-2652 (2006).

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 45, 16071-6077 (2006).

2005 (3)

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, P. H. Bolivar, "Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices," Microelectron. Eng. 78โ€“79, 212-217 (2005).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

2004 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 1583-1591 (2004).

2003 (3)

X. Detter, R. Palla, I. T. Boutherin, E. Pargon, G. Cunge, O. Joubert, L. Vallier, "Impact of chemistry on profile control of resist masked silicon gates etched in high density halogen-based plasmas," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2174-2183 (2003).

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, H. Kurz, "Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018-2025 (2003).

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, "Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980-2984 (2003).

2002 (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. J. Levinson, "Principles of Lithography," Proc. SPIE (2001) Washington, DC.

2000 (2)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a SiSiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

F. C. M. J. M. van Delft, J. P. Weterings, A. K. van Langen-Suurling, H. Romijn, "Hydrogen silsesquioxane novolak bilayer resist for high aspect ratio nanoscale electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3419-3423 (2000).

1996 (1)

"SOITEC's Unibond(R) process," Microelectron. J 27, R36 (1996).

1977 (1)

J. W. Bossung, "Projection printing characterization," Proc. SPIE 100, 80-84 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a SiSiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in silicon-on-insulator using 248-nm deep UV lithography," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. A. Liddle, F. Salmassi, P. P. Naulleau, E. M. Gullikson, "Nanoscale topography control for the fabrication of advanced diffractive optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2980-2984 (2003).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (4)

M. C. Kim, D. Shamiryan, Y. Jung, W. Boullart, C. J. Kang, H. K. Cho, "Effects of various plasma pretreatments on 193 nm photoresist and linewidth roughness after etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2645-2652 (2006).

X. Detter, R. Palla, I. T. Boutherin, E. Pargon, G. Cunge, O. Joubert, L. Vallier, "Impact of chemistry on profile control of resist masked silicon gates etched in high density halogen-based plasmas," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2174-2183 (2003).

F. C. M. J. M. van Delft, J. P. Weterings, A. K. van Langen-Suurling, H. Romijn, "Hydrogen silsesquioxane novolak bilayer resist for high aspect ratio nanoscale electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 3419-3423 (2000).

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, H. Kurz, "Study of a high contrast process for hydrogen silsesquioxane as a negative tone electron beam resist," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018-2025 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A 45, 16071-6077 (2006).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, P. H. Bolivar, "Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices," Microelectron. Eng. 78โ€“79, 212-217 (2005).

Microelectron. J (1)

"SOITEC's Unibond(R) process," Microelectron. J 27, R36 (1996).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. Settle, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, T. F. Krauss, "Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193 nm optical lithography," Opt. Exp. 14, 2440-2445 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (4)

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, "Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 1583-1591 (2004).

Y. A. Vlasov, S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Exp. 12, 1622-1631 (2004).

B. Schmidt, Q. F. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, "Compact electro-optic modulator on silicon-on-insulator substrates using cavities with ultra-small modal volumes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3140-3148 (2007).

L. J. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Exp. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. J. Levinson, "Principles of Lithography," Proc. SPIE (2001) Washington, DC.

J. W. Bossung, "Projection printing characterization," Proc. SPIE 100, 80-84 (1977).

Other (1)

http://www.asml.com.

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