Abstract

We present a continuously tunable optoelectronic oscillator with an intra cavity slow light element based on coherent population oscillations in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The performance of the oscillator is characterized in terms of its frequency tuning range and phase noise. These two characteristics can be traded for each other by choosing the operating conditions of the slow light element and the oscillator fiber length.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2002) pp. 497-530.
  2. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
  3. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
  4. A. K. Patnaik, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, "Slow light propagation in a thin optical fiber via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 66, 63808 (2002).
  5. J. B. Khurgin, "Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 31, 948-950 (2006).
  6. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801-1-023801-4 (2005).
  7. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).
  8. R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, C. J. C. Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: “Capabilities and fundamental limitations”," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).
  9. B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbps differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
  10. M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, "Multitap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on stimulated brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1194-1196 (2007).
  11. S. Chin, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 10684-10692 (2006).
  12. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, Z. Lin, A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
  13. E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5877-5884 (2006).
  14. D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slowand fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).
  15. E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14, 8540-8545 (2006).
  16. A. Willinger, E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "On the roles of polarization and Raman-assisted phase matching in narrowband fiber parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2260-2268 (2008).
  17. J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).
  18. S. Ó Dúill, R. F. O'Dowd, G. Eisenstein, "On the role of high order coherent population oscillations in slow and fast light propagation using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electon. .
  19. W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, J. Mørk, "Enhancing light slow-down in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical filtering," Opt. Lett. 33, 1084-1086 (2008).
  20. Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Ohman, J. Mork, "Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3734-3743 (2008).
  21. A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 55-56 (2005).
  22. W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Mork, J. Capmany, "Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 167-169 (2009).
  23. B. Pesala, C. Zhangyuan, A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).
  24. P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S. W. Chang, S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
  25. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725-1735 (1996).
  26. T. Davidson, P. Goldgeier, G. Eisenstein, M. Orenstein, "High spectral purity CW oscillation and pulse generation in optoelectronic microwave oscillator," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 1260-1261 (1999).
  27. J. Lasri, A. Bilenca, D. Dahan, V. Sidorov, G. Eisenstein, D. Ritter, K. Yvind, "A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1004-1006 (2002).
  28. X. S. Yao, L. Davis, L. Maleki, "Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 73-78 (2000).
  29. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," J. Quant. Electron. 36, 79-84 (2000).
  30. J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, Y. En-Ze, "An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807-809 (2007).
  31. T. Bánky, B. Horváth, T. Berceli, "Optimum configuration of multiloop optoelectronic oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1371-1380 (2006).
  32. E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "A novel multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881-1883 (2008).
  33. S. Huang, L. Maleki, T. Le, "A 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator with continuous frequency tunability and low phase noise," Proc. IEEE Int. Frequency Control Symp. PDA Exhibition (2001) pp. 720-727.
  34. S. Poinsot, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, W. T. Rhodes, B. Boussert, "Continuous radio-frequency tuning of an optoelectronic oscillator with dispersive feedback," Opt. Lett. 27, 1300-1302 (2002).
  35. H. E. Kotb, A. E. Safwat, H. Boghdady, D. Khalil, "Tuning of an RF optoelectronic oscillator," Proc. MWP Int. Top. Meet. Microwave Photonics (2006) pp. 1-4.
  36. D. Eliyahu, L. Maleki, "Tunable, ultra-low phase noise YIG based opto-electronic oscillator," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 2185-2187.
  37. V. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, Continuously Tunable Opto-Electronic Oscillator Having Balanced Electro-Optic Filters U. S. Patent 7,184,451 (2007).

2009 (1)

W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Mork, J. Capmany, "Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 167-169 (2009).

2008 (4)

E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "A novel multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881-1883 (2008).

A. Willinger, E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "On the roles of polarization and Raman-assisted phase matching in narrowband fiber parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2260-2268 (2008).

W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, J. Mørk, "Enhancing light slow-down in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical filtering," Opt. Lett. 33, 1084-1086 (2008).

Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Ohman, J. Mork, "Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3734-3743 (2008).

2007 (4)

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, Z. Lin, A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbps differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, "Multitap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on stimulated brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1194-1196 (2007).

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, Y. En-Ze, "An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807-809 (2007).

2006 (7)

T. Bánky, B. Horváth, T. Berceli, "Optimum configuration of multiloop optoelectronic oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1371-1380 (2006).

B. Pesala, C. Zhangyuan, A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).

S. Chin, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 10684-10692 (2006).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

J. B. Khurgin, "Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 31, 948-950 (2006).

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5877-5884 (2006).

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14, 8540-8545 (2006).

2005 (5)

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slowand fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 55-56 (2005).

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801-1-023801-4 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, C. J. C. Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: “Capabilities and fundamental limitations”," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).

2002 (3)

A. K. Patnaik, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, "Slow light propagation in a thin optical fiber via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 66, 63808 (2002).

J. Lasri, A. Bilenca, D. Dahan, V. Sidorov, G. Eisenstein, D. Ritter, K. Yvind, "A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1004-1006 (2002).

S. Poinsot, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, W. T. Rhodes, B. Boussert, "Continuous radio-frequency tuning of an optoelectronic oscillator with dispersive feedback," Opt. Lett. 27, 1300-1302 (2002).

2000 (2)

X. S. Yao, L. Davis, L. Maleki, "Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 73-78 (2000).

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," J. Quant. Electron. 36, 79-84 (2000).

1999 (2)

T. Davidson, P. Goldgeier, G. Eisenstein, M. Orenstein, "High spectral purity CW oscillation and pulse generation in optoelectronic microwave oscillator," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 1260-1261 (1999).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

1996 (1)

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725-1735 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 55-56 (2005).

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Davidson, P. Goldgeier, G. Eisenstein, M. Orenstein, "High spectral purity CW oscillation and pulse generation in optoelectronic microwave oscillator," IEE Electron. Lett. 35, 1260-1261 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electon. (1)

S. Ó Dúill, R. F. O'Dowd, G. Eisenstein, "On the role of high order coherent population oscillations in slow and fast light propagation using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electon. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Mork, J. Capmany, "Widely tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on slow and fast light effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 167-169 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J. Lasri, A. Bilenca, D. Dahan, V. Sidorov, G. Eisenstein, D. Ritter, K. Yvind, "A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1004-1006 (2002).

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, Y. En-Ze, "An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 807-809 (2007).

M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, "Multitap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on stimulated brillouin scattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1194-1196 (2007).

E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "A novel multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1881-1883 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Ohman, J. Mork, "Theory of optical-filtering enhanced slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3734-3743 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

X. S. Yao, L. Davis, L. Maleki, "Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 73-78 (2000).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, C. J. C. Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: “Capabilities and fundamental limitations”," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Willinger, E. Shumakher, G. Eisenstein, "On the roles of polarization and Raman-assisted phase matching in narrowband fiber parametric amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2260-2268 (2008).

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, Z. Lin, A. E. Willner, "Broadband SBS slow light in an optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. Bánky, B. Horváth, T. Berceli, "Optimum configuration of multiloop optoelectronic oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 1371-1380 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725-1735 (1996).

J. Quant. Electron. (1)

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," J. Quant. Electron. 36, 79-84 (2000).

Nature (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

Opt. Exp. (2)

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbps differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slowand fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

S. Poinsot, H. Porte, J. P. Goedgebuer, W. T. Rhodes, B. Boussert, "Continuous radio-frequency tuning of an optoelectronic oscillator with dispersive feedback," Opt. Lett. 27, 1300-1302 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (6)

B. Pesala, C. Zhangyuan, A. V. Uskov, C. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).

E. Shumakher, A. Willinger, R. Blit, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Large tunable delay with low distortion of 10 gbit/s data in a slow light system based on narrow band fiber parametric amplification," Opt. Exp. 14, 8540-8545 (2006).

E. Shumakher, N. Orbach, A. Nevet, D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "On the balance between delay, bandwidth and signal distortion in slow light systems based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5877-5884 (2006).

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).

S. Chin, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, L. Thévenaz, "Zero-gain slow & fast light propagation in an optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 10684-10692 (2006).

J. B. Khurgin, "Performance limits of delay lines based on optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 31, 948-950 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, A. E. Willner, "Maximum time delay achievable on propagation through a slow-light medium," Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801-1-023801-4 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. K. Patnaik, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, "Slow light propagation in a thin optical fiber via electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 66, 63808 (2002).

Other (5)

H. E. Kotb, A. E. Safwat, H. Boghdady, D. Khalil, "Tuning of an RF optoelectronic oscillator," Proc. MWP Int. Top. Meet. Microwave Photonics (2006) pp. 1-4.

D. Eliyahu, L. Maleki, "Tunable, ultra-low phase noise YIG based opto-electronic oscillator," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 2185-2187.

V. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, Continuously Tunable Opto-Electronic Oscillator Having Balanced Electro-Optic Filters U. S. Patent 7,184,451 (2007).

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2002) pp. 497-530.

S. Huang, L. Maleki, T. Le, "A 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator with continuous frequency tunability and low phase noise," Proc. IEEE Int. Frequency Control Symp. PDA Exhibition (2001) pp. 720-727.

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