Abstract

A single-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low chromatic dispersion, low bend, and rotational sensitivity is presented. The transverse electric field vector distributions of the fundamental, higher order and fundamental space filling modes, their effective indices, chromatic dispersion, confinement, bending and rotational losses are reported using full-vector finite-element method (FEM). In addition, the endlessly single mode behavior is demonstrated by employing the ${V}$ parameter of the proposed PCF. It has also been shown that the proposed PCF design is insensitive to bends and rotations.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Zolla, G. Renversez, A. Nicolet, B. Kuhlmey, S. Guenneau, D. Felbacq, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Fibers (Imperial College Press, 2005).
  2. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Vector description of higher-order modes in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 1333-1340 (2000).
  3. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1093-1102 (1999).
  4. Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of single-moded holey fibers with large-mode-area and low bending losses: The significance of the ring-core region," Opt. Exp. 15, 1794-180 (2007).
  5. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
  6. P. S. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications (Plenum, 1995).
  7. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
  8. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
  9. J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, A. Bjaklev, "Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 96-98 (2000).
  10. T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Holey fibers with random cladding distributions," Opt. Lett. 25, 206-208 (2000).
  11. M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood, "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical–hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).
  12. D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1662-1664 (1998).
  13. H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, E. van Groesen, "Modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: A finite element investigation," Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2004) pp. 311-314.
  14. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
  15. E. Silverstre, P. S. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, "Analysis and design of an endlessly single-mode finned dielectric waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 3067-3075 (1998).
  16. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 276-278 (1999).
  17. S. Haxha, H. Ademgil, "Novel design of photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses, Nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion, Negative chromatic dispersion and improved effective mode area," J. Opt. Comm. 281, 278-286 (2008).
  18. A. Kudlinski, B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, A. Mussot, "CW supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres with two zero-dispersion wavelength," AIP Conf. Proc. (2008) pp. 15-18.
  19. B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "29 W High power CW supercontinuum source," Optics Express 16, 5954-5962 (2008).
  20. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: Application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Opt. Exp. 11, 843-852 (2003).
  21. K. M. Gundu, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, K. S. Lee, "Ultra-flattened-dispersion selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 6870-6878 (2006).
  22. E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, "Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. 96, 3976-3982 (2004).
  23. Y. Lizé, E. Mägi, V. Ta'eed, J. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, B. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Exp. 12, 3209-3217 (2004).
  24. A. M. Zheltikov, "Nonlinear optics of microstructure fibers," Phys. Usp. 47, 69 (2004).
  25. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
  26. H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers with ultra-low chromatic dispersion and low confinement losses," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 441-448 (2008).
  27. N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, "Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 163-167 (2003).
  28. N. A. Mortensen, "Effective area of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 341-348 (2002).
  29. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).
  30. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149, 206-210 (2002).
  31. Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Exp. 13, 4770-4779 (2005).
  32. J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6015-6022 (2005).
  33. B. J. Ainslie, C. R. Day, "A review of single-mode fibers with modified dispersion characteristics," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 967-979 (1986).
  34. N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, K. P. Hansen, "Modal cut – off and the ${V}$- parameter in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1879 (2003).
  35. B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1684-1686 (2002).
  36. F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers by the finite-element method," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).
  37. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Opt. (Academic, 2001).
  38. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).

2008 (3)

H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers with ultra-low chromatic dispersion and low confinement losses," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 441-448 (2008).

S. Haxha, H. Ademgil, "Novel design of photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses, Nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion, Negative chromatic dispersion and improved effective mode area," J. Opt. Comm. 281, 278-286 (2008).

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "29 W High power CW supercontinuum source," Optics Express 16, 5954-5962 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of single-moded holey fibers with large-mode-area and low bending losses: The significance of the ring-core region," Opt. Exp. 15, 1794-180 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. M. Gundu, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, K. S. Lee, "Ultra-flattened-dispersion selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 6870-6878 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Exp. 13, 4770-4779 (2005).

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6015-6022 (2005).

2004 (3)

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, "Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. 96, 3976-3982 (2004).

Y. Lizé, E. Mägi, V. Ta'eed, J. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, B. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Exp. 12, 3209-3217 (2004).

A. M. Zheltikov, "Nonlinear optics of microstructure fibers," Phys. Usp. 47, 69 (2004).

2003 (4)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, "Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 163-167 (2003).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: Application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Opt. Exp. 11, 843-852 (2003).

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, K. P. Hansen, "Modal cut – off and the ${V}$- parameter in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1879 (2003).

2002 (3)

B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1684-1686 (2002).

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149, 206-210 (2002).

N. A. Mortensen, "Effective area of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 341-348 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood, "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical–hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

2000 (6)

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers by the finite-element method," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).

J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, T. Sondergaard, A. Bjaklev, "Analysis of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 96-98 (2000).

T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, N. G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, "Holey fibers with random cladding distributions," Opt. Lett. 25, 206-208 (2000).

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Vector description of higher-order modes in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 1333-1340 (2000).

1999 (3)

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1093-1102 (1999).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 276-278 (1999).

1998 (3)

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 23, 1662-1664 (1998).

E. Silverstre, P. S. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, "Analysis and design of an endlessly single-mode finned dielectric waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 3067-3075 (1998).

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

1986 (1)

B. J. Ainslie, C. R. Day, "A review of single-mode fibers with modified dispersion characteristics," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 967-979 (1986).

Appl. Phys. (1)

E. C. Magi, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, "Transverse characterization of tapered photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. 96, 3976-3982 (2004).

IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. (1)

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, E. Knudsen, S. E. B. Libori, H. R. Simonsen, J. R. Jensen, "Spectral macro-bending loss considerations for photonic crystal fibres," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 149, 206-210 (2002).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. J. Ainslie, C. R. Day, "A review of single-mode fibers with modified dispersion characteristics," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 967-979 (1986).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1084-1100 (2000).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, "Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 163-167 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

E. Silverstre, P. S. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, "Analysis and design of an endlessly single-mode finned dielectric waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 3067-3075 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood, "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical–hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, N. G. R. Broderick, P. J. Bennett, "Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1093-1102 (1999).

H. Ademgil, S. Haxha, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers with ultra-low chromatic dispersion and low confinement losses," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 441-448 (2008).

J. Opt. Comm. (1)

S. Haxha, H. Ademgil, "Novel design of photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses, Nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion, Negative chromatic dispersion and improved effective mode area," J. Opt. Comm. 281, 278-286 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés, M. V. Andrés, "Vector description of higher-order modes in photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 1333-1340 (2000).

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (2)

Y. Lizé, E. Mägi, V. Ta'eed, J. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, B. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Exp. 12, 3209-3217 (2004).

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design and characterization of single-mode holey fibers with low bending losses," Opt. Exp. 13, 4770-4779 (2005).

Opt. Express (1)

K. M. Gundu, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, K. S. Lee, "Ultra-flattened-dispersion selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 6870-6878 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

Opt. Exp. (4)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, E. Sasaoka, "Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: Application to ultra-flattened dispersion," Opt. Exp. 11, 843-852 (2003).

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6015-6022 (2005).

N. A. Mortensen, "Effective area of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 341-348 (2002).

Y. Tsuchida, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Design of single-moded holey fibers with large-mode-area and low bending losses: The significance of the ring-core region," Opt. Exp. 15, 1794-180 (2007).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Brechet, J. Marcou, D. Pagnoux, P. Roy, "Complete analysis of the characteristics of propagation into photonic crystal fibers by the finite-element method," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 181-191 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (8)

Optics Express (1)

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "29 W High power CW supercontinuum source," Optics Express 16, 5954-5962 (2008).

Phys. Usp. (1)

A. M. Zheltikov, "Nonlinear optics of microstructure fibers," Phys. Usp. 47, 69 (2004).

Science (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

Other (5)

H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, E. van Groesen, "Modes of an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber: A finite element investigation," Proc. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter (2004) pp. 311-314.

P. S. J. Russell, T. A. Birks, F. D. Lloyd-Lucas, Confined Electrons and Photons: New Physics and Applications (Plenum, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Opt. (Academic, 2001).

A. Kudlinski, B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, A. Mussot, "CW supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres with two zero-dispersion wavelength," AIP Conf. Proc. (2008) pp. 15-18.

F. Zolla, G. Renversez, A. Nicolet, B. Kuhlmey, S. Guenneau, D. Felbacq, Fundamentals of Photonic Crystal Fibers (Imperial College Press, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.