Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the four-stage multicast network with only two multicast stages (the second and output stages) being multicast-capable, which is called 4(2 m)-stage multicast network. We first derive the sufficient wide-sense nonblocking (WSNB) and rearrangeable nonblocking (RNB) conditions for the 4(2 m)-stage multicast network. The WSNB and RNB conditions are also presented for multicast request with limited multicast degree. The 4(2 m)-stage multicast network needs at least O$(N^{3 / 2})$ crosspoints to be WSNB and RNB, which is a lower bound than the three-stage Clos network with two multicast stages and the same bound with the four-stage network with three multicast stages. Then we design full and partial multicast-capable optical cross connects (MC-OXCs) applying the 4(2m)-stage multicast network. The proposed WSNB full MC-OXC with two multicast stages is power efficient in reducing splitting loss and has lower multicast cost, compared with the one having three multicast stages. Partial MC-OXC with only one multicast stage is proposed to further reduce the multicast cost and splitting loss. The RNB MC-OXCs with one or two multicast stages provide better performance at the respects of crosspoints, multicast cost, and splitting loss than their WSNB counterparts.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. W. S. Hu, Q. J. Zeng, "Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 970-972 (1998).
  2. Z. Pan, "Advanced optical-label routing system supporting multicast, optical TTL, and multimedia applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3270-3281 (2005).
  3. S. Yu, S.-C. Lee, O. Ansell, R. Varrazza, "Lossless optical packet multicast using active vertical coupler based optical crosspoint switch matrix," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2984-2992 (2005).
  4. H. Du, W. Hu, H. He, C. Zhang, Y. Dong, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, S. Xiao, "Separated unicast/multicast splitter-and-delivery switch and its use in multicasting-capable optical cross-connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 368-370 (2009).
  5. M. Ali, Transmission-Efficient Design and Management of Wavelength-Routed Optical Networks (Springer/Kluwer, 2001).
  6. H. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, "Strictly nonblocking multicasting WDM optical cross connects using multi-wavelength converters," Proc. 14th IEEE Symp/ High-Performance Interconnects (HOTI'06) (2006) pp. 37-44.
  7. H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).
  8. D. Pan, V. Anand, H. Ngo, "Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks," Proc. IEEE ICC 04 (2004) pp. 1801-1805.
  9. W. D. Zhong, J. P. R. Lacey, R. S. Tucker, "Multiwavelength cross-connects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).
  10. L. A. Bassalygo, M. S. Pinsker, "Asymptotically optimal networks for generalized rearrangeable switching and generalized switching without arrangement," Problemy Peredachi Informatsii 16, 94-98 (1980).
  11. C. Clos, "A study of nonblocking switching networks," Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406-424 (1953).
  12. F. K. Hwang, The Mathematical Theory of Nonblocking Switching Networks (World Scientific, 2004) pp. 99-108.
  13. F. K. Hwang, Y. Wang, J. Tan, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast logd (N, m, p) networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 981-986 (2007).
  14. X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Strictly nonblocking design of f-cast photonic multi-log2N networks with crosstalk constraints," IEEE Workshop High Performance Switching Routing (HPSR07) (2007) pp. 1-6.
  15. P. To, T. Lee, "Generalized non-blocking copy networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (1997) pp. 467-471.
  16. Y. Yang, G. M. Masson, "Nonblocking broadcast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Comput. 40, 1005-1015 (1991).
  17. Y. Yang, J. Wang, "A new design for wide-sense nonblocking multicast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 497-504 (2005).
  18. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).
  19. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2984 (2006).
  20. G. N. Rouskas, "Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges," IEEE Netw. 17, 60-65 (2003).

2009 (1)

H. Du, W. Hu, H. He, C. Zhang, Y. Dong, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, S. Xiao, "Separated unicast/multicast splitter-and-delivery switch and its use in multicasting-capable optical cross-connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 368-370 (2009).

2007 (1)

F. K. Hwang, Y. Wang, J. Tan, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast logd (N, m, p) networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 981-986 (2007).

2006 (2)

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2984 (2006).

2005 (3)

Y. Yang, J. Wang, "A new design for wide-sense nonblocking multicast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 497-504 (2005).

Z. Pan, "Advanced optical-label routing system supporting multicast, optical TTL, and multimedia applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3270-3281 (2005).

S. Yu, S.-C. Lee, O. Ansell, R. Varrazza, "Lossless optical packet multicast using active vertical coupler based optical crosspoint switch matrix," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2984-2992 (2005).

2003 (1)

G. N. Rouskas, "Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges," IEEE Netw. 17, 60-65 (2003).

1998 (1)

W. S. Hu, Q. J. Zeng, "Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 970-972 (1998).

1996 (1)

W. D. Zhong, J. P. R. Lacey, R. S. Tucker, "Multiwavelength cross-connects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).

1991 (1)

Y. Yang, G. M. Masson, "Nonblocking broadcast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Comput. 40, 1005-1015 (1991).

1980 (1)

L. A. Bassalygo, M. S. Pinsker, "Asymptotically optimal networks for generalized rearrangeable switching and generalized switching without arrangement," Problemy Peredachi Informatsii 16, 94-98 (1980).

1953 (1)

C. Clos, "A study of nonblocking switching networks," Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406-424 (1953).

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

C. Clos, "A study of nonblocking switching networks," Bell Sys. Tech. J. 32, 406-424 (1953).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. S. Hu, Q. J. Zeng, "Multicasting optical cross connects employing splitter-and-delivery switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 970-972 (1998).

IEEE Netw. (1)

G. N. Rouskas, "Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges," IEEE Netw. 17, 60-65 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Du, W. Hu, H. He, C. Zhang, Y. Dong, W. Sun, W. Guo, Y. Jin, S. Xiao, "Separated unicast/multicast splitter-and-delivery switch and its use in multicasting-capable optical cross-connect," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 368-370 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

F. K. Hwang, Y. Wang, J. Tan, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast logd (N, m, p) networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 981-986 (2007).

Y. Yang, J. Wang, "A new design for wide-sense nonblocking multicast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 497-504 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

Y. Yang, G. M. Masson, "Nonblocking broadcast switching networks," IEEE Trans. Comput. 40, 1005-1015 (1991).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. D. Zhong, J. P. R. Lacey, R. S. Tucker, "Multiwavelength cross-connects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Z. Pan, "Advanced optical-label routing system supporting multicast, optical TTL, and multimedia applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3270-3281 (2005).

S. Yu, S.-C. Lee, O. Ansell, R. Varrazza, "Lossless optical packet multicast using active vertical coupler based optical crosspoint switch matrix," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2984-2992 (2005).

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2984 (2006).

Problemy Peredachi Informatsii (1)

L. A. Bassalygo, M. S. Pinsker, "Asymptotically optimal networks for generalized rearrangeable switching and generalized switching without arrangement," Problemy Peredachi Informatsii 16, 94-98 (1980).

Other (7)

D. Pan, V. Anand, H. Ngo, "Cost-effective constructions for nonblocking WDM multicast switching networks," Proc. IEEE ICC 04 (2004) pp. 1801-1805.

M. Ali, Transmission-Efficient Design and Management of Wavelength-Routed Optical Networks (Springer/Kluwer, 2001).

H. S. Hamza, J. S. Deogun, "Strictly nonblocking multicasting WDM optical cross connects using multi-wavelength converters," Proc. 14th IEEE Symp/ High-Performance Interconnects (HOTI'06) (2006) pp. 37-44.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002).

X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Strictly nonblocking design of f-cast photonic multi-log2N networks with crosstalk constraints," IEEE Workshop High Performance Switching Routing (HPSR07) (2007) pp. 1-6.

P. To, T. Lee, "Generalized non-blocking copy networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (1997) pp. 467-471.

F. K. Hwang, The Mathematical Theory of Nonblocking Switching Networks (World Scientific, 2004) pp. 99-108.

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