Abstract

Out-of-plane losses are the major issue in the integration of two-dimensional photonic crystal devices in photonic integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that the out-of-plane losses of pillar-based photonic crystal waveguides can be vastly reduced, even for pillars with a low vertical index contrast, such as in InP/InGaAsP/InP technology. These low losses are obtained by creating confinement between the pillars with a polymer layer stack. We show that the spatial frequency component of the Bloch mode in the first Brillouin zone (i.e., the component inside the light cone), is significantly suppressed by the optimized polymer layer stack.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).
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  5. L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).
  6. H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, M.-K. Seo, Y.-G. Ju, S.-B. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).
  7. R. van der Heijden, C. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink, B. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, E. van der Drift, "InP based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 161112.
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  14. A. Kok, E. Geluk, B. Docter, J. van der Tol, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, R. Baets, "Transmission of pillar-based photonic crystal waveguides in InP technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) 201109.
  15. A. Kok, E. Geluk, M. Sander-Jochem, J. van der Tol, Y. Oei, M. Smit, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals based on InP rods," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. (Benelux Chapter) (2005) pp. 273-276.

2007 (3)

H. T. Hattori, I. McKerracher, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, R. D. L. Rue, "In-plane coupling of light from InP-based photonic crystal band-edge lasers into single-mode waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 279-286 (2007).

V. Zabelin, L. Dunbar, N. L. Thomas, R. Houdré, M. Kotlyar, L. O'Faolain, T. F. Krauss, "Self-collimating photonic crystal polarization beam splitter," Opt. Lett. 32, 530-532 (2007).

A. Kok, E. Geluk, B. Docter, J. van der Tol, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, R. Baets, "Transmission of pillar-based photonic crystal waveguides in InP technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) 201109.

2006 (2)

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

R. van der Heijden, C. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink, B. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, E. van der Drift, "InP based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 161112.

2005 (1)

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, M.-K. Seo, Y.-G. Ju, S.-B. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).

2002 (2)

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, D. de Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in 1-D photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 195-203 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Čtyroký, "Photonic band gap structures in planar waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 435-441 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).

R. van der Heijden, C. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink, B. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, E. van der Drift, "InP based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006) 161112.

A. Kok, E. Geluk, B. Docter, J. van der Tol, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, R. Baets, "Transmission of pillar-based photonic crystal waveguides in InP technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) 201109.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. T. Hattori, I. McKerracher, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, R. D. L. Rue, "In-plane coupling of light from InP-based photonic crystal band-edge lasers into single-mode waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 279-286 (2007).

L. Wu, M. Mazilu, T. Karle, T. F. Krauss, "Superprism phenomena in planar photonic crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 915-918 (2002).

H.-G. Park, S.-H. Kim, M.-K. Seo, Y.-G. Ju, S.-B. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, "Characteristics of electrically driven two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1131-1141 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

J. Čtyroký, "Photonic band gap structures in planar waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 18, 435-441 (2001).

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, D. de Zutter, "Out-of-plane scattering in 1-D photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 195-203 (2002).

Other (4)

P. Bienstman, CAMFR. http://camfr.sourceforge.net.

Photon DesignCrystalWave. http://www.photond.com.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

A. Kok, E. Geluk, M. Sander-Jochem, J. van der Tol, Y. Oei, M. Smit, "Two-dimensional photonic crystals based on InP rods," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Symp. (Benelux Chapter) (2005) pp. 273-276.

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