Abstract

This paper proposes a novel architecture for coherent optical code-division multiple-access passive optical networks (OCDMA-PON). As optical spreading sequences, a recently introduced prime code family hereby referred to as double-padded modified prime code (DPMPC) has been employed and analyzed. The transceivers operate under homodyne dual-balanced detection scheme. For coherent modulation, binary phase-shift keying is employed where the phase is modulated by Mach–Zehnder external phase-modulator. The proposed architecture for optical network units and line terminals are also presented and analyzed. The network scalability of fiber link distances as well as bit-error rate, considering 1) fiber link noise e.g., amplifier spontaneous emission noise; 2) thermal noise; 3) photo-detectors' shot-noise; 4) relative intensity noise; and 5) mainly multiple-access interference, have been investigated. The results have indicated that this architecture can improve the network scalability, capacity and transmission performance, leading to the promising scheme for optical transport networks.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Network (McGraw Hill, 2005).
  2. C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PON," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
  3. K. Iwatsuki, J. I. Kani, H. Suzuki, "Access and metro metworks based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2623-2630 (2004).
  4. F. Yamamoto, T. Sugie, "Reduction of optical beat interference in passive optical networks using CDMA technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1710-1712 (2000).
  5. B. Ahn, Y. Park, "A symmetric-structure CDMA-PON system and its implementation," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1381-1383 (2002).
  6. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Phase-modulations analyses in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network using a novel prime code family," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) (2007) pp. 358-362.
  7. M. M. Karbassian, F. Liu, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of novel prime code family in coherent optical CDMA network," Proc. IEEE ChinaCom (2007) pp. 393-396.
  8. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. E. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA," Proc. OFC (2006).
  9. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).
  10. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Capacity enhancement in synchronous optical overlapping PPM-CDMA network by a novel spreading code," Proc. GlobeCom (2007) pp. 2407-2411.
  11. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).
  12. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Study of phase modulations with dual-balanced detection in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2840-2847 (2008).
  13. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Evaluation of coherent homodyne and heterodyne optical CDMA structures," J. Optical and Quantum Electronics 40, 513-524 (2008).
  14. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. & Opt. Technol. Letteres 50, 883-885 (2008).
  15. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Novel channel interference reduction in optical synchronous FSK-CDMA networks using a data-free reference," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).
  16. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Novel PolSK-OCDMA transceiver architecture," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) (2008) pp. 411-415.
  17. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA networks based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).
  18. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Incoherent two-dimensional array modulation transceiver for photonic CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 980-988 (2009).
  19. K. Matsushima, X. Wang, S. Kutsuzuwa, A. Nishiki, S. Oshiba, N. Wada, K. I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of performance improvement of 127-chip SSFBG en/decoder using apodization technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2192-2194 (2004).
  20. X. Wang, K. Matsushima, K. Kitayama, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, F. Kubata, "High-performance optical code generation and recognition by use of a 511-chip, 640-Gchip/s phase-shifted superstructured fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 30, 335-337 (2005).
  21. R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. Ben Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS OCDMA network testbed," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).
  22. J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, T. Sylvestre, "Passively mode-locked raman fiber laser with 100 GHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 31, 3489-3491 (2006).
  23. J. F. Lemieux, A. Bellemare, C. Latrasse, M. Tetu, "Step-tunable (100 GHz) hybrid laser based on Vernier effect between Fabry–Perot cavity and sampled fibre Bragg grating," Eletron. Lett. 35, 904-906 (1999).
  24. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).
  25. A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable optical delay lines for reconfigurable switching and processing," Proc. IEEE Photon. Switching (2007) pp. 45-46.
  26. M. A. A. Mohammed, H. M. H. Shalaby, E. A. El-Badawy, "On optical CDMA MAC protocols," Proc. IEEE ISCAS (2006).
  27. P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, J. A. Bannister, "The need for medium access control in optical CDMA networks," Proc. IEEE InfoCom (2004).
  28. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing and traffic analysis in coherent optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1262-1268 (2009).
  29. W. Huang, I. Andonovic, M. Tur, "Decision-directed PLL for coherent optical pulse CDMA system in the presence of multiuser interference, laser phase noise, and shot noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1786-1794 (1998).
  30. C. Zhang, K. Qui, B. Xu, "Investigation on performance of passive optical network based on OCDMA," Proc. IEEE ICCCS (2006).
  31. C. Zhang, K. Qui, B. Xu, "Passive optical network based on optical CDMA: Design and system analysis," Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 118-126 (2007).
  32. X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).
  33. F. Ayadi, L. A. Rusch, "Coherent optical CDMA with limited phase excursion," Commun. Lett. 1, 28-30 (1997).

2009 (2)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Incoherent two-dimensional array modulation transceiver for photonic CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 980-988 (2009).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing and traffic analysis in coherent optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1262-1268 (2009).

2008 (6)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Study of phase modulations with dual-balanced detection in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2840-2847 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Evaluation of coherent homodyne and heterodyne optical CDMA structures," J. Optical and Quantum Electronics 40, 513-524 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. & Opt. Technol. Letteres 50, 883-885 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Novel channel interference reduction in optical synchronous FSK-CDMA networks using a data-free reference," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA networks based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).

2007 (3)

C. Zhang, K. Qui, B. Xu, "Passive optical network based on optical CDMA: Design and system analysis," Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 118-126 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. Ben Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS OCDMA network testbed," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).

K. Matsushima, X. Wang, S. Kutsuzuwa, A. Nishiki, S. Oshiba, N. Wada, K. I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of performance improvement of 127-chip SSFBG en/decoder using apodization technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2192-2194 (2004).

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

K. Iwatsuki, J. I. Kani, H. Suzuki, "Access and metro metworks based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2623-2630 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PON," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. Ahn, Y. Park, "A symmetric-structure CDMA-PON system and its implementation," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1381-1383 (2002).

2000 (1)

F. Yamamoto, T. Sugie, "Reduction of optical beat interference in passive optical networks using CDMA technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1710-1712 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. F. Lemieux, A. Bellemare, C. Latrasse, M. Tetu, "Step-tunable (100 GHz) hybrid laser based on Vernier effect between Fabry–Perot cavity and sampled fibre Bragg grating," Eletron. Lett. 35, 904-906 (1999).

1998 (1)

W. Huang, I. Andonovic, M. Tur, "Decision-directed PLL for coherent optical pulse CDMA system in the presence of multiuser interference, laser phase noise, and shot noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1786-1794 (1998).

1997 (1)

F. Ayadi, L. A. Rusch, "Coherent optical CDMA with limited phase excursion," Commun. Lett. 1, 28-30 (1997).

Chinese Science Bulletin (1)

C. Zhang, K. Qui, B. Xu, "Passive optical network based on optical CDMA: Design and system analysis," Chinese Science Bulletin 52, 118-126 (2007).

Commun. Lett. (1)

F. Ayadi, L. A. Rusch, "Coherent optical CDMA with limited phase excursion," Commun. Lett. 1, 28-30 (1997).

Eletron. Lett. (1)

J. F. Lemieux, A. Bellemare, C. Latrasse, M. Tetu, "Step-tunable (100 GHz) hybrid laser based on Vernier effect between Fabry–Perot cavity and sampled fibre Bragg grating," Eletron. Lett. 35, 904-906 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over Ethernet PON," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Incoherent two-dimensional array modulation transceiver for photonic CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 980-988 (2009).

J. Optical and Quantum Electronics (1)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Evaluation of coherent homodyne and heterodyne optical CDMA structures," J. Optical and Quantum Electronics 40, 513-524 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing and traffic analysis in coherent optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1262-1268 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

W. Huang, I. Andonovic, M. Tur, "Decision-directed PLL for coherent optical pulse CDMA system in the presence of multiuser interference, laser phase noise, and shot noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1786-1794 (1998).

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, A. H. Gnauck, D. A. Fishman, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, B. Basch, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, "100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission: from laboratory experiments to field trials," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3388-3402 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Novel channel interference reduction in optical synchronous FSK-CDMA networks using a data-free reference," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Transceiver architecture for incoherent optical CDMA networks based on polarization modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3820-3828 (2008).

K. Iwatsuki, J. I. Kani, H. Suzuki, "Access and metro metworks based on WDM technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2623-2630 (2004).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Study of phase modulations with dual-balanced detection in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2840-2847 (2008).

J. Microw. & Opt. Technol. Letteres (1)

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. & Opt. Technol. Letteres 50, 883-885 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Matsushima, X. Wang, S. Kutsuzuwa, A. Nishiki, S. Oshiba, N. Wada, K. I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of performance improvement of 127-chip SSFBG en/decoder using apodization technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2192-2194 (2004).

F. Yamamoto, T. Sugie, "Reduction of optical beat interference in passive optical networks using CDMA technique," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1710-1712 (2000).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Ahn, Y. Park, "A symmetric-structure CDMA-PON system and its implementation," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1381-1383 (2002).

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. Ben Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS OCDMA network testbed," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2186-2188 (2004).

Other (10)

A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable optical delay lines for reconfigurable switching and processing," Proc. IEEE Photon. Switching (2007) pp. 45-46.

M. A. A. Mohammed, H. M. H. Shalaby, E. A. El-Badawy, "On optical CDMA MAC protocols," Proc. IEEE ISCAS (2006).

P. Kamath, J. D. Touch, J. A. Bannister, "The need for medium access control in optical CDMA networks," Proc. IEEE InfoCom (2004).

C. Zhang, K. Qui, B. Xu, "Investigation on performance of passive optical network based on OCDMA," Proc. IEEE ICCCS (2006).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Phase-modulations analyses in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network using a novel prime code family," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) (2007) pp. 358-362.

M. M. Karbassian, F. Liu, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of novel prime code family in coherent optical CDMA network," Proc. IEEE ChinaCom (2007) pp. 393-396.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. E. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA," Proc. OFC (2006).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Capacity enhancement in synchronous optical overlapping PPM-CDMA network by a novel spreading code," Proc. GlobeCom (2007) pp. 2407-2411.

G. Kramer, Ethernet Passive Optical Network (McGraw Hill, 2005).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Novel PolSK-OCDMA transceiver architecture," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) (2008) pp. 411-415.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.