A. Fallahkhair, S. Li, T. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for
anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw.
Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

S. Hsu, M. Chen, H. Chang, "Investigation of band structures for 2D non-diagonal anisotropic
photonic crystals using a finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm," Opt. Exp. 15, 5416-5430 (2007).

S. Hsu, H. Chang, "Full-vectorial finite element method based
eigenvalue algorithm for the analysis of 2D photonic crystals with arbitrary
3d anisotropy," Opt. Exp. 15, 15 797-15 811 (2007).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, M. Haelterman, "Observation of out-coupling of a nematicon," Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 263-267 (2006) 12.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, S. E. Day, "Finite-element modeling of
liquid-crystal hydrodynamics with a variable degree of order," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).

A. d'Alessandro, B. Bellini, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, "Nematic liquid crystal optical
channel waveguides on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum
Electron. 42, 1084-1090 (2006).

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, "Spatial soliton all-optical
logic gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287-1289 (2006).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Haelterman, "Patterned electrode steering of nematicons," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214-220 (2006).

A. Fratalocchi, R. Asquini, G. Assanto, "Integrated electro-optic switch
in liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 32-36 (2005).

G. Ntogari, D. Tsipouridou, E. Kriezis, "A numerical study of optical
switches and modulators based on ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 82-87 (2005).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D lateral light propagation
in nematic-liquid-crystal cells with tilted molecules and nonlinear reorientational
effect," Opt. Quant. Electron. 35, 95-106 (2005).

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, R. Baets, "Modeling nematic liquid crystals in the neighborhood of
edges," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).

J. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, M. Warenghem, "Self-waveguiding in an isotropic
channel induced in dye doped nematic liquid crystal and a bent self-waveguide," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 315-323 (2004).

C. Gizzi, R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, "A polarization independent
liquid crystal assisted vertical coupler switch," Mol.
Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 421, 95-105 (2004).

A. d'Alessandro, R. Asquini, "Liquid crystal devices for
photonic switching applications: State of the art and future developments," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 207-221 (2003).

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference
router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J.
Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S298-S304 (2003).

V. Schulz, "Adjoint high-order vectorial
finite elements for nonsymmetric transversally anisotropic waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1086-1095 (2003).

F. Bertazzi, O. Peverini, M. Goano, G. Ghione, R. Orta, R. Tascone, "A fast reduced-order model for the full-wave fem analysis
of lossy inhomogeneous anisotropic waveguides," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 2108-2114 (2002).

P. Savi, I. Gheorma, R. Graglia, "Full-wave high-order FEM model
for lossy anisotropic waveguides," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 495-500 (2002).

R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, "Bpm analysis of an integrated
optical switch using polymeric optical waveguides and ssflc at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst 375, 243-247 (2002).

S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, M. Zoboli, "Complex FEM modal solver of
optical waveguides with PML boundary conditions," Opt.
Quant. Electron. 33, 359-371 (2001).

F. Tisseur, K. Meerbergen, "The quadratic eigenvalue problem," SIAM Rev. 43, 235-286 (2001).

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, "Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with
triangular shape for guided-wave problems," J.
Lightw. Technol. 18, 737-743 (2000).

E. Gros, L. Dupont, "Beam deflector using double-refraction
in ferroelectric liquid crystal waveguides," Ferroelectrics 246, 219-226 (2000).

G. Tartarini, H. Renner, "Efficient finite-element analysis
of tilted open anisotropic optical channel waveguides," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 9, 389-391 (1999).

L. Nuno, J. Balbastre, H. Castane, "Analysis of general lossy inhomogeneous
and anisotropic waveguides by the finite-element method (FEM) using edge elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 446-449 (1997).

L. Valor, J. Zapata, "An efficient finite element
formulation to analyze waveguides with lossy inhomogeneous bi-anisotropic
materials," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 291-296 (1996).

L. Valor, J. Zapata, "Efficient finite element analysis
of waveguides with lossy inhomogeneous anisotropic materials characterized
by arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2452-2459 (1995).

A. F. Peterson, "Vector finite element formulation
for scattering from two-dimensional heterogeneous bodies," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 43, 357-365 (1994).

Y. Lu, F. A. Fernandez, "An efficient finite element
solution of inhomogeneous anisotropic and lossy dielectric waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 1215-1223 (1993).

J. A. M. Svedin, "Propagation analysis of chirowaveguides
using the finite element method," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 1488-1496 (1990).

N. Clark, M. Handshy, "Surface-stabilized ferroelectric
liquid-crystal electro-optic waveguide switch," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 57, 1852-1854 (1990).

J. A. M. Svedin, "A numerically efficient finite-element
formulation for the general waveguide problem without spurious modes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 37, 1708-1715 (1989).

T. Angkaew, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, "Finite-element analysis of
waveguide modes: A novel approach that eliminates spurious modes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-35, 117-123 (1987).

Y. Satomura, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, "Analysis of electromagnetic-wave
modes in anisotropic slab waveguide," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-22, 86-92 (1974).

N. Clark, M. Handshy, "Surface-stabilized ferroelectric
liquid-crystal electro-optic waveguide switch," Appl.
Phys. Lett. 57, 1852-1854 (1990).

E. Gros, L. Dupont, "Beam deflector using double-refraction
in ferroelectric liquid crystal waveguides," Ferroelectrics 246, 219-226 (2000).

F. Bertazzi, O. Peverini, M. Goano, G. Ghione, R. Orta, R. Tascone, "A fast reduced-order model for the full-wave fem analysis
of lossy inhomogeneous anisotropic waveguides," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 2108-2114 (2002).

L. Valor, J. Zapata, "Efficient finite element analysis
of waveguides with lossy inhomogeneous anisotropic materials characterized
by arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2452-2459 (1995).

G. Tartarini, H. Renner, "Efficient finite-element analysis
of tilted open anisotropic optical channel waveguides," IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 9, 389-391 (1999).

A. d'Alessandro, B. Bellini, D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, "Nematic liquid crystal optical
channel waveguides on silicon," IEEE J. Quantum
Electron. 42, 1084-1090 (2006).

S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, M. Peccianti, G. Assanto, "Spatial soliton all-optical
logic gates," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1287-1289 (2006).

P. Savi, I. Gheorma, R. Graglia, "Full-wave high-order FEM model
for lossy anisotropic waveguides," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 495-500 (2002).

J. A. M. Svedin, "Propagation analysis of chirowaveguides
using the finite element method," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 1488-1496 (1990).

Y. Satomura, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, "Analysis of electromagnetic-wave
modes in anisotropic slab waveguide," IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-22, 86-92 (1974).

A. F. Peterson, "Vector finite element formulation
for scattering from two-dimensional heterogeneous bodies," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 43, 357-365 (1994).

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, S. E. Day, "Finite-element modeling of
liquid-crystal hydrodynamics with a variable degree of order," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).

J. A. M. Svedin, "A numerically efficient finite-element
formulation for the general waveguide problem without spurious modes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 37, 1708-1715 (1989).

T. Angkaew, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, "Finite-element analysis of
waveguide modes: A novel approach that eliminates spurious modes," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-35, 117-123 (1987).

Y. Lu, F. A. Fernandez, "An efficient finite element
solution of inhomogeneous anisotropic and lossy dielectric waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 1215-1223 (1993).

L. Valor, J. Zapata, "An efficient finite element
formulation to analyze waveguides with lossy inhomogeneous bi-anisotropic
materials," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 291-296 (1996).

L. Nuno, J. Balbastre, H. Castane, "Analysis of general lossy inhomogeneous
and anisotropic waveguides by the finite-element method (FEM) using edge elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 446-449 (1997).

V. Schulz, "Adjoint high-order vectorial
finite elements for nonsymmetric transversally anisotropic waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1086-1095 (2003).

M. Koshiba, Y. Tsuji, "Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with
triangular shape for guided-wave problems," J.
Lightw. Technol. 18, 737-743 (2000).

L. Sirleto, G. Coppola, G. Breglio, "Optical multimode interference
router based on a liquid crystal waveguide," J.
Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S298-S304 (2003).

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, R. Baets, "Modeling nematic liquid crystals in the neighborhood of
edges," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).

A. Fallahkhair, S. Li, T. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for
anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw.
Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

G. Ntogari, D. Tsipouridou, E. Kriezis, "A numerical study of optical
switches and modulators based on ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 82-87 (2005).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, M. Haelterman, "Patterned electrode steering of nematicons," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 214-220 (2006).

J. Henninot, M. Debailleul, R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, M. Warenghem, "Self-waveguiding in an isotropic
channel induced in dye doped nematic liquid crystal and a bent self-waveguide," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 315-323 (2004).

C. Gizzi, R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, "A polarization independent
liquid crystal assisted vertical coupler switch," Mol.
Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 421, 95-105 (2004).

R. Asquini, A. d'Alessandro, "Bpm analysis of an integrated
optical switch using polymeric optical waveguides and ssflc at 1.55 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst 375, 243-247 (2002).

A. d'Alessandro, R. Asquini, "Liquid crystal devices for
photonic switching applications: State of the art and future developments," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 398, 207-221 (2003).

S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, M. Zoboli, "Complex FEM modal solver of
optical waveguides with PML boundary conditions," Opt.
Quant. Electron. 33, 359-371 (2001).

A. Fratalocchi, R. Asquini, G. Assanto, "Integrated electro-optic switch
in liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 32-36 (2005).

S. Hsu, H. Chang, "Full-vectorial finite element method based
eigenvalue algorithm for the analysis of 2D photonic crystals with arbitrary
3d anisotropy," Opt. Exp. 15, 15 797-15 811 (2007).

S. Hsu, M. Chen, H. Chang, "Investigation of band structures for 2D non-diagonal anisotropic
photonic crystals using a finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm," Opt. Exp. 15, 5416-5430 (2007).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D lateral light propagation
in nematic-liquid-crystal cells with tilted molecules and nonlinear reorientational
effect," Opt. Quant. Electron. 35, 95-106 (2005).

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, M. Haelterman, "Observation of out-coupling of a nematicon," Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 263-267 (2006) 12.

F. Tisseur, K. Meerbergen, "The quadratic eigenvalue problem," SIAM Rev. 43, 235-286 (2001).

P. Yeh, C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley-Interscience, 1999).

V. Chigrinov, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials (Wiley, 2008).

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).

P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford Univ. Press, 1995).

H. Desmet, W. Bogaerts, A. Adamski, J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, R. Baets, "Silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides with liquid crystal
cladding for switching and tuning," Proc. ECOC (2003) pp. 430-431.