Abstract

The general output characteristics of high quality factor microring resonators with modulated coupling strengths are derived. The results are applied to the case of a microring integrated with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer coupler to investigate the amplitude, linearity, distortion, and chirp of the output. These modulators can be designed to give low-distortion, high extinction ratio, chirp-free outputs at modulation rates only limited by the maximum modulation rate of the coupler or the free spectral range frequency of the resonator.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (3)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Dynamics of microring resonator modulators," Opt. Exp. 16, 15 741-15 753 (2008).

Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, P. D. Dapkus, "Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 342-13 348 (2008).

2007 (5)

L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Electrically reconfigurable silicon microring resonator-based filter with waveguide-coupled feedback," Opt. Exp. 15, 9194-9204 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators," Opt. Exp. 15, 17 264-17 272 (2007).

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal," Opt. Exp. 15, 11 564-11 569 (2007).

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, P. Günter1, "Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate," Nature Photon. 1, 407-410 (2007).

2005 (3)

T. Sadagopan, S. J. Choi, S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, "Carrier-induced refractive index changes in InP-based circular microresonators for low-voltage high-speed modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 414-416 (2005).

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

W. Green, R. Lee, G. DeRose, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, "Hybrid ingaasp-inp Mach-Zehnder racetrack resonator for thermooptic switching and coupling control," Opt. Exp. 13, 1651-1659 (2005).

2002 (6)

I. L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, "Fundamental limitations of optical resonator based high-speed EO modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 795-797 (2002).

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1968-1975 (2002).

T. A. Ibrahim, V. Van, P.-T. Ho, "All-optical time-division demultiplexing and spatial pulse routing with a GaAs/AlGaAs microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 27, 803-805 (2002).

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, H. Heidrich, "High-${\rm Q}$ channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).

1988 (1)

F. Koyama, K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

1986 (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

D. G. Rabus, M. Hamacher, U. Troppenz, H. Heidrich, "High-${\rm Q}$ channel-dropping filters using ring resonators with integrated SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1442-1444 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Sadagopan, S. J. Choi, S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, P. D. Dapkus, "Carrier-induced refractive index changes in InP-based circular microresonators for low-voltage high-speed modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 414-416 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

I. L. Gheorma, R. M. Osgood, "Fundamental limitations of optical resonator based high-speed EO modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 795-797 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

F. Koyama, K. Iga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1968-1975 (2002).

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

Nature (1)

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Nature Photon. (1)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, P. Günter1, "Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate," Nature Photon. 1, 407-410 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, P. D. Dapkus, "Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 342-13 348 (2008).

W. Green, R. Lee, G. DeRose, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, "Hybrid ingaasp-inp Mach-Zehnder racetrack resonator for thermooptic switching and coupling control," Opt. Exp. 13, 1651-1659 (2005).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators," Opt. Exp. 15, 17 264-17 272 (2007).

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal," Opt. Exp. 15, 11 564-11 569 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

T. A. Ibrahim, V. Van, P.-T. Ho, "All-optical time-division demultiplexing and spatial pulse routing with a GaAs/AlGaAs microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 27, 803-805 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (3)

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Dynamics of microring resonator modulators," Opt. Exp. 16, 15 741-15 753 (2008).

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Electrically reconfigurable silicon microring resonator-based filter with waveguide-coupled feedback," Opt. Exp. 15, 9194-9204 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

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