Abstract

We describe our design and fabrication of a low-loss and compact 1.5%-$\Delta$ silica-based athermal arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) using a resin-filled groove. We present the theory of athermal AWG design and clarify the relationship between the AWG design parameters and the groove design required for realizing an athermal condition. We also describe approaches for reducing excess loss in the groove, which are used to optimize the groove and arrayed waveguide designs. We examine the performance of a 40-channel 100 GHz spacing athermal AWG module that employs all of the approaches. We successfully reduce the excess loss in the groove to 0.2 dB and achieve a compact chip size of $31\times 23\ {\hbox{mm}}^{2}$ as well as sufficient optical performance and temperature insensitivity for practical use. In addition, we confirm by calculation that our approaches for excess loss reduction are also effective for an athermal AWG with a channel spacing of less than 100 GHz.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).
  2. C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).
  3. S. Park, C. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Park, J. Ahn, K. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).
  4. J. B. D. Soole, M. P. Earnshaw, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, L. Jampanaboyana, "Rearrangeable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) filters implemented in silica waveguide planar technology," LEOS 2003 WX1.
  5. V. Viscardi, G. Barozzi, O. Gerstel, "Asymmetric reconfigurable OADMs for next generation metro-DWDM networks," OFC 2004 TuH3.
  6. P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystems and technologies," OFC2005 OWB5.
  7. J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, M. P. Earnshaw, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalised monolithic VMUX employing silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1318-1319 (2004).
  8. S. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, S. Mino, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, R. Kasahara, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, T. Kitagawa, "Compactly integrated 32-channel AWG multiplexer with variable optical attenuators and power monitors based on multichip PLC technique," OFC2004 ThL2.
  9. A. Kaneko, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Doi, R. Kasahara, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, M. Ishii, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small and low power consumption 8ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology," OFC2005 OTuD3.
  10. Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, S. Sumida, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 1945-1946 (1997).
  11. A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).
  12. G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, P. C. Clemens, "Optical phased array filter module with passively compensated temperature dependence," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 20-24.
  13. J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalisation of silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1182-1184 (2003).
  14. A. J. Ticknor, B. P. McGinnis, T. Tarter, M. Yang, "Effective passive and active wavelength-stabilization techniques for AWGs and integrated optical filters," NFOEC2005 NThL3.
  15. J. Hasegawa, K. Nara, "Low loss ( $\sim$1.4 dB) 200 GHz-16 ch athermal AWG compact module for metro/access network," OFC2005 OTuD5.
  16. N. Ooba, Y. Hibino, Y. Inoue, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer using bimetal plate temperature compensator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1800-1801 (2000).
  17. L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, V. Gorbounov, H. Temkin, "Temperature-insensitive reflective arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 831-833 (2004).
  18. Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, H. Tanaka, "Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ wavelength by an athermal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 32, 1998-2000 (1996).
  19. H. Hirota, M. Itoh, M. Oguma, Y. Hibino, "Athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers composed of TiO2-SiO2 waveguides on Si," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 375-377 (2005).
  20. N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, J. Bauer, M. Bauer, C. Dreyer, J. Schneider, "Athermal all-polymer arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 579-580 (2001).
  21. A. Yeniay, R. Gao, K. Takayama, R. Gao, A. F. Garito, "Ultra-low-loss polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 154-158 (2004).
  22. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
  23. K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).
  24. S. Kamei, K. Iemura, A. Kaneko, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "1.5%- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with very low loss groove design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 588-590 (2005).
  25. S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, K. Iemura, T. Shibata, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, "Extremely low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$ 32-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 41, 545-546 (2005).
  26. A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, I. Ogawa, "Design and applications of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1227-1235 (1999).
  27. A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
  28. S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Ohmori, "Polarisation-insensitive arrayed-waveguide gratings using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate," Electron. Lett. 34, 1173-1174 (1997).
  29. T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).
  30. M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed-waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).

2006 (1)

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

2005 (3)

H. Hirota, M. Itoh, M. Oguma, Y. Hibino, "Athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers composed of TiO2-SiO2 waveguides on Si," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 375-377 (2005).

S. Kamei, K. Iemura, A. Kaneko, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "1.5%- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with very low loss groove design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 588-590 (2005).

S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, K. Iemura, T. Shibata, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, "Extremely low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$ 32-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 41, 545-546 (2005).

2004 (6)

A. Yeniay, R. Gao, K. Takayama, R. Gao, A. F. Garito, "Ultra-low-loss polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 154-158 (2004).

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, V. Gorbounov, H. Temkin, "Temperature-insensitive reflective arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 831-833 (2004).

S. Park, C. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Park, J. Ahn, K. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, M. P. Earnshaw, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalised monolithic VMUX employing silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1318-1319 (2004).

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).

K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalisation of silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1182-1184 (2003).

2002 (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

2001 (2)

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, J. Bauer, M. Bauer, C. Dreyer, J. Schneider, "Athermal all-polymer arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 579-580 (2001).

M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed-waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).

2000 (3)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).

N. Ooba, Y. Hibino, Y. Inoue, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer using bimetal plate temperature compensator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1800-1801 (2000).

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).

1999 (1)

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, I. Ogawa, "Design and applications of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1227-1235 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

1997 (2)

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, S. Sumida, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 1945-1946 (1997).

S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Ohmori, "Polarisation-insensitive arrayed-waveguide gratings using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate," Electron. Lett. 34, 1173-1174 (1997).

1996 (1)

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, H. Tanaka, "Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ wavelength by an athermal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 32, 1998-2000 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Kaneko, S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multi/demultiplexers with new low loss groove design," Electron. Lett. 36, 318-319 (2000).

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, H. Tanaka, "Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$ wavelength by an athermal waveguide," Electron. Lett. 32, 1998-2000 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (9)

N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, J. Bauer, M. Bauer, C. Dreyer, J. Schneider, "Athermal all-polymer arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 579-580 (2001).

J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalisation of silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1182-1184 (2003).

N. Ooba, Y. Hibino, Y. Inoue, A. Sugita, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer using bimetal plate temperature compensator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1800-1801 (2000).

J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, M. P. Earnshaw, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalised monolithic VMUX employing silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1318-1319 (2004).

K. Maru, K. Matsui, H. Ishikawa, Y. Abe, S. Kashimura, S. Himi, H. Uetsuka, "Super-high- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed waveguide grating with resin-filled trenches in slab region," Electron. Lett. 40, 374-375 (2004).

S. Kamei, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, K. Iemura, T. Shibata, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, "Extremely low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$ 32-channel athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 41, 545-546 (2005).

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, S. Sumida, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 37, 1945-1946 (1997).

S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Ohmori, "Polarisation-insensitive arrayed-waveguide gratings using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate," Electron. Lett. 34, 1173-1174 (1997).

M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed-waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Yeniay, R. Gao, K. Takayama, R. Gao, A. F. Garito, "Ultra-low-loss polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 154-158 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Hirota, M. Itoh, M. Oguma, Y. Hibino, "Athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers composed of TiO2-SiO2 waveguides on Si," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 375-377 (2005).

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, V. Gorbounov, H. Temkin, "Temperature-insensitive reflective arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 831-833 (2004).

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Kaneko, T. Goh, H. Yamada, T. Tanaka, I. Ogawa, "Design and applications of silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1227-1235 (1999).

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Kamei, K. Iemura, A. Kaneko, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, A. Sugita, "1.5%- $\Delta$ athermal arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexer with very low loss groove design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 588-590 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

C. R. Doerr, K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).

S. Park, C. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Park, J. Ahn, K. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

Other (8)

J. B. D. Soole, M. P. Earnshaw, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, L. Jampanaboyana, "Rearrangeable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) filters implemented in silica waveguide planar technology," LEOS 2003 WX1.

V. Viscardi, G. Barozzi, O. Gerstel, "Asymmetric reconfigurable OADMs for next generation metro-DWDM networks," OFC 2004 TuH3.

P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystems and technologies," OFC2005 OWB5.

S. Suzuki, Y. Inoue, S. Mino, M. Ishii, I. Ogawa, R. Kasahara, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, T. Kitagawa, "Compactly integrated 32-channel AWG multiplexer with variable optical attenuators and power monitors based on multichip PLC technique," OFC2004 ThL2.

A. Kaneko, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Doi, R. Kasahara, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, M. Ishii, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small and low power consumption 8ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology," OFC2005 OTuD3.

G. Heise, H. W. Schneider, P. C. Clemens, "Optical phased array filter module with passively compensated temperature dependence," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 20-24.

A. J. Ticknor, B. P. McGinnis, T. Tarter, M. Yang, "Effective passive and active wavelength-stabilization techniques for AWGs and integrated optical filters," NFOEC2005 NThL3.

J. Hasegawa, K. Nara, "Low loss ( $\sim$1.4 dB) 200 GHz-16 ch athermal AWG compact module for metro/access network," OFC2005 OTuD5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.