Abstract

We review techniques to characterize optical data with very high fidelity using the principle of optical sampling based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber. This approach results in sub-ps time resolution without artifacts in the impulse response and also excellent sensitivity allowing statistical analysis. In particular we describe implementations aimed at differentially phase encoded data (such as DQPSK) with all-optical balanced detection, formats requiring the complete signal field recovery (such as QAM) with phase-sensitive sampling, and signals requiring real-time recovery with all-optical real-time sampling. The all-optical approach to characterize optical waveform is shown to be very attractive and practical way to capture the details of various kinds of data and is, in principle, also scalable to extremely high baud rates.

© 2009 IEEE

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  30. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parameteric amplification," IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).
  31. M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).
  32. M. Westlund, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical phase-sensitive waveform sampling at 40 GSymbols/s," OFC 2008 San DiegoCA (2008) post-deadline paper, PDP12.
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2008 (3)

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, "Digital self-coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 16, 792-803 (2008).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Sinlicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature Lett. 456, (2008).

2007 (1)

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. d. Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol 25, 222-232 (2007).

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

M. Westlund, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinear-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol 23, 2012-22 (2005).

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Spectro-temporal imaging of optical pulses with a single time lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882-884 (2004).

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2108-2110 (2004).

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling system using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125-1127 (2004).

2003 (1)

I. Kang, K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gbit/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).

2001 (1)

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parameteric amplification," IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

1992 (1)

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

1991 (1)

P. A. Andrekson, "Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1440-1441 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. A. Andrekson, "Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1440-1441 (1991).

I. Kang, K. F. Dreyer, "Sensitive 320 Gbit/s eye diagram measurements via optical sampling with semiconductor optical amplifier-ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Electron. Lett. 39, 1081-1083 (2003).

IEEE J. STQE (1)

C. Dorrer, "High-speed measurement for optical telecommunication systems," IEEE J. STQE 12, 843-858 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. (1)

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parameteric amplification," IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 13, 987-989 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, B. E. Olsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Simple scheme for polarization-independent all-optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2108-2110 (2004).

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling system using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125-1127 (2004).

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Spectro-temporal imaging of optical pulses with a single time lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 882-884 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol (2)

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. M. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. d. Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol 25, 222-232 (2007).

M. Westlund, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinear-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol 23, 2012-22 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Software-synchronized all-optical sampling for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1088-1099 (2005).

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature Lett. (1)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Sinlicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature Lett. 456, (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Coherent detection in optical fiber systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 753-791 (2008).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, "Digital self-coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 16, 792-803 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (18)

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "One Tera-Sample/sec real-time transient digitizer," Proc. Intrum. Meas. Technol. Conf. (2005) pp. 507-509.

http://www.celtic-initiative.org/Projects/100GET/.

M. G. Taylor, "Measurement of phase diagrams of optical communication signals using sampled coherent detection," Proc. Symp. Optical Fiber Measurements Technical Dig. 2004 (2004) pp. 163-166.

I. Kim, K. Croussore, G. Li, "Complex constellation diagram measurement for optical communication," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 62430D-1-7.

K. Tanimura, H. Ohta, "Monitoring of DPSK/DQPSK signals using 1-bit delayed self-homodyne detection with optical phase diversity," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007) pp. 157-158.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, Y.-K. Chen, "A real-time CMA-based 10 Gb/s polarization demultiplexing coherent receiver implemented in an FPGA," OFC2008 (2008) paper OTuO2.

K. Kikuchi, "Coherent transmission systems," ECOC 2008, Tutorial (2008).

N. Kikuchi, K. Sekine, S. Sasaki, "Time-resolved waveform measurement of high-speed phase-modulated optical signals using self-homodyne interferometry," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 391-392.

C. Dorrer, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, "Investigation of 42.7 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals using linear optical sampling," Proc. CLEO (2005) pp. 606-608.

M. Westlund, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical phase-sensitive waveform sampling at 40 GSymbols/s," OFC 2008 San DiegoCA (2008) post-deadline paper, PDP12.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, M. Izutsu, "Picosecond pulse generation with a single-stage standard Mach–Zehnder modulator employed," ECOC 2006 (2006) paper We4.6.2.

Derickson, Digital Communications Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall, 2007).

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "100 GSample/s optical real-time sampling system with Nyquist-limited bandwidth," ECOC2007 BerlinGermany post-deadline paper PD 1.1..

S. Watanabe, R. Okabe, F. Futami, R. Hainberger, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, C. S. G. Weber, "Novel fiber Kerr-switch with parametric gain: Demonstration of optical demultiplexing and sampling up to 640 Gb/s," ECOC 2004 paper Th4.1.6.

M. Westlund, "High performance all-optical waveform monitoring for fiber com. systems," ECOC~2005 Th3.2.6.

C. Dorrer, "High-sens. high-resolution sampling using linear optics and waveguide optical hybrid," OFC~2004 PDP18.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

H. Sunnerud, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, "All-Optical balanced detection system with sub-ps resolution," OFC 2009 (2009) paper OThF4.

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