Abstract

Applications using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for optical performance monitoring (OPM) are proposed and demonstrated. Simultaneous identification of optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion (CD), and polarization-mode-dispersion (PMD) from eye-diagram parameters is shown via simulation in both 40 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK) systems. Experimental verification is performed to simultaneously identify OSNR and CD. We then extend this technique to simultaneously identify accumulated fiber nonlinearity, OSNR, CD, and PMD from eye-diagram and eye-histogram parameters in a 3-channel 40 Gb/s DPSK wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system. Furthermore, we propose using this ANN approach to monitor impairment causing changes from a baseline. Simultaneous identification of accumulated fiber nonlinearity, OSNR, CD, and PMD causing changes from a baseline by use of the eye-diagram and eye-histogram parameters is obtained and high correlation coefficients are achieved with various baselines. Finally, the ANNs are also shown for simultaneous identification of in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) data misalignment and data/carver misalignment in return-to-zero differential quadrature phase shift keying (RZ-DQPSK) transmitters.

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2009 (1)

J. Jargon, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 54-56 (2009).

2008 (3)

X. Wu, L. Christen, B. Zhang, W.-R. Peng, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, S. R. Nuccio, J. A. Jargon, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Synchronization monitoring of I/Q data and pulse carving misalignment for a parallel-type RZ-DQPSK transmitter by measuring RF Clock tone/low frequency power," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2138-2140 (2008).

H. Sun, K. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Express 16, 873-879 (2008).

B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Express 16, 3566-3576 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

R. A. Skoog, T. C. Banwell, J. W. Gannett, S. F. Habiby, M. Pang, M. E. Rauch, P. Toliver, "Automatic identification of impairments using support vector machine pattern classification on eye diagrams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2398-2400 (2006).

A. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

Q. J. Zhang, K. C. Gupta, V. K. Devabhaktuni, "Artificial neural networks for RF and microwave design: from theory to practice," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1339-1350 (2003).

2001 (1)

V. K. Devabhaktuni, M. Yagoub, Y. Fang, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, "Neural networks for microwave modeling: Model development issues and nonlinear modeling techniques," Int. J. RF Microwave CAE 11, 4-21 (2001).

1999 (3)

F. Wang, V. K. Devabhaktuni, C. Xi, Q. J. Zhang, "Neural network structures and training algorithms for microwave applications," Int. J. RF Microwave CAE 9, 216-240 (1999).

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, B. Strebel, "Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels," Electron. Lett. 35, 403-404 (1999).

S. Ohteru, N. Takachio, "Optical signal quality monitor using direct Q-factor measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1307-1309 (1999).

1998 (2)

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, Y. Yamabayashi, "Optical signal quality monitoring method based on optical sampling," Electron. Lett. 34, 2152-2154 (1998).

K. C. Gupta, "Emerging trends in millimeter-wave CAD," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 747-755 (1998).

1997 (1)

G. Thimm, E. Fiesler, "High-order and multilayer perceptron initialization," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 8, 349-359 (1997).

1989 (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, "Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators," Neural Networks 2, 359-366 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (2)

I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, Y. Yamabayashi, "Optical signal quality monitoring method based on optical sampling," Electron. Lett. 34, 2152-2154 (1998).

N. Hanik, A. Gladisch, C. Caspar, B. Strebel, "Application of amplitude histograms to monitor performance of optical channels," Electron. Lett. 35, 403-404 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Ohteru, N. Takachio, "Optical signal quality monitor using direct Q-factor measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1307-1309 (1999).

J. Jargon, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with eye-diagram parameters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 54-56 (2009).

R. A. Skoog, T. C. Banwell, J. W. Gannett, S. F. Habiby, M. Pang, M. E. Rauch, P. Toliver, "Automatic identification of impairments using support vector machine pattern classification on eye diagrams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2398-2400 (2006).

X. Wu, L. Christen, B. Zhang, W.-R. Peng, J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, S. R. Nuccio, J. A. Jargon, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Synchronization monitoring of I/Q data and pulse carving misalignment for a parallel-type RZ-DQPSK transmitter by measuring RF Clock tone/low frequency power," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2138-2140 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

Q. J. Zhang, K. C. Gupta, V. K. Devabhaktuni, "Artificial neural networks for RF and microwave design: from theory to practice," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1339-1350 (2003).

K. C. Gupta, "Emerging trends in millimeter-wave CAD," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 747-755 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (1)

G. Thimm, E. Fiesler, "High-order and multilayer perceptron initialization," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 8, 349-359 (1997).

Int. J. RF Microwave CAE (2)

V. K. Devabhaktuni, M. Yagoub, Y. Fang, J. Xu, Q. J. Zhang, "Neural networks for microwave modeling: Model development issues and nonlinear modeling techniques," Int. J. RF Microwave CAE 11, 4-21 (2001).

F. Wang, V. K. Devabhaktuni, C. Xi, Q. J. Zhang, "Neural network structures and training algorithms for microwave applications," Int. J. RF Microwave CAE 9, 216-240 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Neural Networks (1)

K. Hornik, M. Stinchcombe, H. White, "Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators," Neural Networks 2, 359-366 (1989).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (15)

F. N. Hauske, J. C. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. R. S. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E.-D. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, B. Lankl, "Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) '08 (2008) paper OThW2.

X. Wu, J. Jargon, A. E. Willner, "Off-line monitoring of CD/PMD/OSNR degradation effects using neural-network-based training sequences," European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) '08 (2008) paper We.3.D.6.

X. Wu, J. Jargon, L. Christen, A. E. Willner, "Training of neural networks to perform optical performance monitoring of a combination of accumulated signal nonlinearity, CD, PMD, and OSNR," IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting 2008 (2008) paper WP 4.

X. Wu, J. Jargon, L. Christen, L. Paraschis, A. E. Willner, "Monitoring I/Q data and pulse carving misalignments in RZ-DQPSK transmitters using a neural network approach," IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting 2008 (2008) paper WP 2.

M. H. Hassoun, Fundamentals of Artificial Neural Networks (the MIT Press, 1995).

Q. J. Zhang, K. C. Gupta, Neural Networks for RF and Microwave Design (Artech House, 2000).

Y. C. Chung, "Optical performance monitoring techniques; current status and future challenges," European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) '08 (2008) paper We.1.D.1.

O. Gerstel, R. Cassata, L. Paraschis, W. Wakim, "Operational solutions for an Open DWDM layer," Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC) '09 (2009) paper NThF1.

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Chromatic-dispersion-insensitive PMD monitoring using optical off-center bandpass filtering," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) '03 (2003) paper ThY3.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) '06 (2006) paper OThP5.

S. D. Dods, T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, M. Bakaul, A. Kowalczyk, "Asynchronous sampling for optical performance monitoring," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) '07 (2007) paper OMM5.

NeuroModeler, ver. 1.5Q.J. Zhang and His Neural Network Research Team OttawaCanadaDepartment of Electronics, Carleton University (Department of Electronics, Carleton University, 2004)OttawaCanada.

J. A. Jargon, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring using artificial neural networks trained with parameters derived from delay-tap asynchronous sampling," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) '09 (2009) paper OThH1.

T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, K. Clarke, J. Bedo, A. Kowalczyk, "Multi-impairment monitoring for photonic networks," European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) '07 (2007) paper 3.5.1.

T. B. Anderson, K. Clarke, D. Beaman, H. Ferra, M. Birk, G. Zhang, P. Magill, "Experimental Demonstration of Multi-Impairment Monitoring on a commercial 10 Gbit/s NRZ WDM channel," Conference on Optical Fiber Communications (OFC)'09 (2009) paper OThH7.

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