Abstract

A model accurately describing amplified spontaneous emission noise in systems with distributed Raman gain is presented. Numerical simulations are corroborated with experimental results. Our model is used to study the interaction between signal and noise mediated by fiber nonlinearities for different propagation regimes. It is shown that for distances longer than 120 km and moderate signal powers, higher than 6 mW, the noise statistics deviates significatively from the Gaussian distribution.

© 2009 IEEE

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  7. A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear interaction between signal and noise in optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1847-1853 (2008).
  8. H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).
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2008 (4)

A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear interaction between signal and noise in optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1847-1853 (2008).

M. Fugihara, A. N. Pinto, "Low-cost Raman amplifier for CWDM systems," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 50, 297-301 (2008).

M. P. Dlubek, A. J. Philliphs, E. C. Larkins, "Nonlinear evolution of Gaussian ASE noise in ZMNL fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 891-898 (2008).

Q. Zhang, M. Hayee, "Symmetrized split-step fourier scheme to control global simulation accuracy in fiber-optic communication systems," Lightw. Technol. J. 26, 302-316 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. N. Pinto, J. R. F. da Rocha, Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation: Role of timing jitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 387 (2006).

2004 (3)

X. Liu, Y. Li, "Efficient algorithm and optimization for broadband Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 12, (2004).

W. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Peng, X. Liu, "A simple algorithm for gain spectrum adjustment of backward-pumped distributed fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 69-71 (2004).

X. Liu, Y. Li, "Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers," Opt. Commun. (2004).

2003 (1)

P. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Huang, J. Liu, "A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206-208 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications," IEEE J. Sel. To. Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).

V. Perlin, H. Winful, "Optimizing the noise performance of broad-band WDM systems with distributed Raman amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1199-1201 (2002).

2000 (1)

B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).

1999 (1)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, J. R. F. da Rocha, "Effect of soliton interaction on timing jitter in communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 515-519 (1998).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

C. Headley, IIIG. Agrawal, "Noise characteristics and statistics of picosecond stokes pulses generated in optical fibers through stimulated Raman scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2058-2067 (1995).

1994 (1)

A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the Kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1993-2000 (1994).

1991 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Single-channel operation in very long nonlinear fibers with optical amplifiers at zero dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 356-361 (1991).

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

M. G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: Unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1993 (1981).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Headley, IIIG. Agrawal, "Noise characteristics and statistics of picosecond stokes pulses generated in optical fibers through stimulated Raman scattering," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2058-2067 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. To. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Islam, "Raman amplifiers for telecommunications," IEEE J. Sel. To. Quantum Electron. 8, 548-559 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).

B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).

V. Perlin, H. Winful, "Optimizing the noise performance of broad-band WDM systems with distributed Raman amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1199-1201 (2002).

W. Zhang, X. Feng, J. Peng, X. Liu, "A simple algorithm for gain spectrum adjustment of backward-pumped distributed fiber Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 69-71 (2004).

P. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Huang, J. Liu, "A new optimal algorithm for multipump sources of distributed fiber Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 206-208 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, J. R. F. da Rocha, "Effect of soliton interaction on timing jitter in communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 515-519 (1998).

A. N. Pinto, J. R. F. da Rocha, Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation: Role of timing jitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 387 (2006).

A. N. Pinto, G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear interaction between signal and noise in optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1847-1853 (2008).

D. Marcuse, "Single-channel operation in very long nonlinear fibers with optical amplifiers at zero dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 356-361 (1991).

A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the Kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1993-2000 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lightw. Technol. J. (1)

Q. Zhang, M. Hayee, "Symmetrized split-step fourier scheme to control global simulation accuracy in fiber-optic communication systems," Lightw. Technol. J. 26, 302-316 (2008).

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

M. Fugihara, A. N. Pinto, "Low-cost Raman amplifier for CWDM systems," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 50, 297-301 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Liu, Y. Li, "Optimizing the bandwidth and noise performance of distributed multi-pump Raman amplifiers," Opt. Commun. (2004).

Opt. Express (1)

X. Liu, Y. Li, "Efficient algorithm and optimization for broadband Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 12, (2004).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. G. Raymer, J. Mostowski, "Stimulated Raman scattering: Unified treatment of spontaneous initiation and spatial propagation," Phys. Rev. A 24, 1980-1993 (1981).

Other (7)

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2002).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

M. C. Jeruchim, P. Balaban, K. S. Shanmugan, Simulation of Communication Systems: Modeling, Methodology and Techniques (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

C. Headley, IIIG. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic Press, 2004).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

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