Abstract

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an approach to optically generating chirped microwave pulses with tunable chirp profile based on optical spectral shaping using a Sagnac loop filter incorporating a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) and linear wavelength-to-time mapping in a dispersive element. In the proposed approach, the optical power spectrum of an ultrashort optical pulse is shaped by a CFBG-incorporated Sagnac loop mirror that has a reflection spectral response with a linearly increasing or decreasing free spectral range. The spectrum-shaped optical pulse is then sent to a dispersive element to perform the linear wavelength-to-time mapping. A chirped microwave pulse with the pulse shape identical to that of the shaped spectrum is obtained at the output of a high-speed photodector. The central frequency and the chirp profile of the generated chirped microwave pulse can be controlled by simply tuning the time delay in the Sagnac loop mirror. A simple mathematical model to describe the chirped microwave pulse generation is developed. Numerical simulations and a proof-of-principle experiment are implemented to verify the proposed approach.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. D. K. Barton, Radar System Analysis and Modeling (Artech House, 2005).
  2. H. D. Griffiths, W. J. Bradford, "Digital generation of high time-bandwidth product linear FM waveforms for radar altimeters," IEE Proc.-F 139, 160-169 (1992).
  3. H. Kwon, B. Kang, "Linear frequency modulation of voltage-controlled oscillator using delay-line feedback," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 431-433 (2005).
  4. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
  5. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform generation and characterization using spectral line-by-line control," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2487-2494 (2006).
  6. M. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).
  7. R. E. Saperstien, N. Alic, D. Pasasenko, R. Rokitski, Y. Fainman, "Time-domain waveform processing by chromatic dispersion for temporal shaping of optical pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2427-2436 (2005).
  8. J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Reconfigurable generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse sequences based on time-domain phase-only filtering," Opt. Lett. 30, 3228-3230 (2005).
  9. J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2663-2675 (2006).
  10. D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 494-504 (2001).
  11. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).
  12. J. D. McKinney, D. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Photonically assisted generation of arbitrary millimeter-wave and microwave electromagnetic waveforms via direct space-to-time optical pulse shaping," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3020-3028 (2003).
  13. S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phase-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).
  14. D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping in an integrated-optic configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 1551-1553 (2004).
  15. A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).
  16. M. A. Muriel, J. Azaña, A. Carballar, "Real-time Fourier transformer based on fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1-3 (1999).
  17. J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).
  18. J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, P. W. E. Smith, "Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2223-2224 (1999).
  19. B. Jalali, P. Kelkar, V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator," Proc. 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (2001) pp. 253-254.
  20. J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).
  21. I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).
  22. H. Chi, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signals based on pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 668-670 (2007).
  23. C. Wang, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137-139 (2007).
  24. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).
  25. H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).
  26. H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).
  27. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).
  28. X. Shu, S. Jiang, D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelength-laser application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 980-982 (2000).
  29. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).
  30. S. Mallet, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic Press, 1999).

2008 (3)

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).

2007 (3)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

H. Chi, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signals based on pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 668-670 (2007).

C. Wang, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137-139 (2007).

2006 (2)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform generation and characterization using spectral line-by-line control," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2487-2494 (2006).

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2663-2675 (2006).

2005 (5)

H. Kwon, B. Kang, "Linear frequency modulation of voltage-controlled oscillator using delay-line feedback," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 431-433 (2005).

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

R. E. Saperstien, N. Alic, D. Pasasenko, R. Rokitski, Y. Fainman, "Time-domain waveform processing by chromatic dispersion for temporal shaping of optical pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2427-2436 (2005).

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Reconfigurable generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse sequences based on time-domain phase-only filtering," Opt. Lett. 30, 3228-3230 (2005).

2004 (3)

D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping in an integrated-optic configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 1551-1553 (2004).

S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phase-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).

M. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. D. McKinney, D. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Photonically assisted generation of arbitrary millimeter-wave and microwave electromagnetic waveforms via direct space-to-time optical pulse shaping," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3020-3028 (2003).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 494-504 (2001).

2000 (3)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).

X. Shu, S. Jiang, D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelength-laser application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 980-982 (2000).

1999 (2)

M. A. Muriel, J. Azaña, A. Carballar, "Real-time Fourier transformer based on fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1-3 (1999).

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, P. W. E. Smith, "Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2223-2224 (1999).

1992 (1)

H. D. Griffiths, W. J. Bradford, "Digital generation of high time-bandwidth product linear FM waveforms for radar altimeters," IEE Proc.-F 139, 160-169 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, P. W. E. Smith, "Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings," Electron. Lett. 35, 2223-2224 (1999).

IEE Proc.-F (1)

H. D. Griffiths, W. J. Bradford, "Digital generation of high time-bandwidth product linear FM waveforms for radar altimeters," IEE Proc.-F 139, 160-169 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 494-504 (2001).

J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (2)

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

H. Kwon, B. Kang, "Linear frequency modulation of voltage-controlled oscillator using delay-line feedback," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 431-433 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

M. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phase-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).

H. Chi, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of microwave signals based on pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 668-670 (2007).

C. Wang, F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber ultrawideband pulse generation based on spectral shaping and dispersion-induced frequency-to-time conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 137-139 (2007).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).

X. Shu, S. Jiang, D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelength-laser application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 980-982 (2000).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2663-2675 (2006).

J. D. McKinney, D. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Photonically assisted generation of arbitrary millimeter-wave and microwave electromagnetic waveforms via direct space-to-time optical pulse shaping," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3020-3028 (2003).

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform generation and characterization using spectral line-by-line control," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2487-2494 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (4)

D. K. Barton, Radar System Analysis and Modeling (Artech House, 2005).

B. Jalali, P. Kelkar, V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generator," Proc. 14th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (2001) pp. 253-254.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1995).

S. Mallet, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic Press, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.