Abstract

This paper studies integrated silicon photodiodes (PDs) implemented in standard CMOS technologies. A new PIN PD structure utilizing deep n-well is presented, and compared with conventional vertical and lateral PIN PDs at 850-nm wavelength and different bias conditions. Prototype PDs were fabricated in a 0.18-$\mu$m standard CMOS technology, and their DC, impulse and frequency responses were characterized. A 70$\,\times\,$70 $\mu$m$^2$ PD with the new structure achieved a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.2 GHz in small signal at 5-V bias, whereas conventional lateral and vertical PIN PDs could only operate up to 0.94 GHz and 1.15 GHz, respectively. At 5-V bias, the impulse response of the new PD exhibited a full-width at half-maximum pulsewidth of 127 ps, versus 175 and 150 ps for the conventional lateral and vertical ones, respectively. At 15.5-V bias, the bandwidth of this new PD reached 3.13 GHz, with an impulse response pulsewidth of 102 ps. The responsivity of all prototype PDs was measured at approximately 0.14 A/W up to 10-V bias, which corresponded to a quantum efficiency of 20%. The responsivity of the new PD could be further increased to 0.4 A/W or 58% quantum efficiency, when operating in the avalanche region at 16.2-V bias.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. LAN/MAN CSMA/CD Access Method IEEE Standard 802.3-2005.
  2. J. Staley, S. Muknahallipatna, H. Johnson, "Fibre channel based storage area network modeling using OPNET for large fabric simulations: Preliminary work," Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. Local Comp. Net. (2007) pp. 234-236.
  3. D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
  4. J. W. Goodman, "Optical interconnections for vlsi systems," Proc. IEEE 72, 850-866 (1984).
  5. Y. Miyamoto, M. Yoneyama, K. Hagimoto, T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, "40 Gbit/s high sensitivity optical receiver with uni-travelling carrier photodiode acting as a decision IC driver," IEEE Electron. Lett. 34, 214-215 (1998).
  6. B. Huber, "InP-InGaAs single HBT technology for photoreceiver OEIC's at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 992-1000 (2000).
  7. L. D. Garret, J. Qi, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, "A silicon-based integrated NMOS-p-i-n photoreceiver," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 43, 411-416 (1996).
  8. C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, J. C. Campbell, "A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon nMOS optical receiver," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 1035-1039 (1998).
  9. J. D. Schaub, R. Li, M. S. Csutak, J. C. Campbell, "High-speed monolithic silicon photoreceivers on high resistivity and SOI substrates," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 272-278 (2001).
  10. B. Yang, J. D. Schaub, S. M. Csutak, D. L. Rogers, J. C. Campbell, "10-Gb/s all-silicon optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 745-747 (2003).
  11. C. L. Schow, "15-Gb/s 2.4-V optical receiver using Ge-on- SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).
  12. A. Narasimha, "A fully integrated 4$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 2736-2744 (2007).
  13. G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, C. Gunn, "A 1550 nm, 10 Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130 nm CMOS with Integrated GE waveguide photodetector," Proc. Group IV Phot. 2007 4th IEEE Int. Conf. (2007) pp. 28-30.
  14. H. Zimmermann, Integrated Silicon Optic-Electronics (Springer, 2000).
  15. S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2002).
  16. C. L. Schow, R. Li, J. D. Schaub, J. C. Campbell, "Design and implementation of high-speed planar si photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1478-1482 (1999).
  17. N. Kistler, J. Woo, "Detailed characterization and analysis of the breakdown voltage in fully depleted SOI nMOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 41, 1217-1221 (1994).
  18. S. M. Csutak, J. D. Schaub, W. E. Wu, R. Shimer, J. C. Campbell, "CMOS-compatible high-speed planar silicon photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 193-196 (2002).
  19. S. Radovanović, A. J. Annema, B. Nauta, "High-speed lateral polysilicon photodiode in standard CMOS technology," Proc. 33rd Conf. Euro. Solid-State Dev. Research (2003) pp. 521-4.
  20. M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).
  21. G. Dehlinger, "High-speed germanium-on SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
  22. T. Yin, "31 GHz n-i-p waveguide photodetectros on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Expr. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).
  23. J. L. Polleux, C. Rumelhard, "Optical absorption coefficient determination and physical modelling of strained SiGe/Si photodetectors," Proc. High Perform. Elect. Dev. Micr. and Optoelect. Appl. 8th IEEE Int. Symp. (2000) pp. 167-172.
  24. O. Qasaimeh, Z. Ma, P. Bhattacharya, E. T. Croke, "Monolithically integrated multichannel SiGe/Si p-in- HBT photoreceiver arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1548-1553 (2000).
  25. K.-S. Lai, J.-C. Huang, K.Y.-J. Hsu, "High-responsivity photodetector in standard SiGe BICMOS Technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 800-801 (2007).
  26. H. C. Lee, B. V. Zeghbroeck, "A novel high-speed silicon MSM photodetector operating at 830 nm wavelength," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 175-177 (1995).
  27. M. Yang, "A high-speed high-sensitivity silicon lateral trench photodetector," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).
  28. M. K. Emsley, "Silicon substrates with buried distributed bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 948-955 (2002).
  29. H. Zimmermann, T. Heide, A. Ghazi, "Monolithic high-speed CMOS-photoreceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 254-256 (1999).
  30. T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krisahnamoorthy, "1-Gb/s Integrated optical detectors and receivers in commercial CMOS technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 146-156 (1999).
  31. C. Hermans, M. S. J. Steyaert, "A high-speed 850-nm optical receiver front-end in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1606 (2006).
  32. W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-M. Hsin, "A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 197-199 (2007).
  33. P. J. Holly, L. A. Akers, "Latch-up prevention using an N-well Epi-CMOS process," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device ED-30, 1403-1405 (1983).
  34. I.-Y. Leu, A. Neugroschel, "Minority-carrier transport paramters in heavily doped p-type silicon at 296 and 77 K," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 40, 1872-1875 (1993).
  35. C.-Y. Lee, T.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kao, "Methods for noise isolation in RFCMOS ICs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).

2007 (4)

A. Narasimha, "A fully integrated 4$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 2736-2744 (2007).

T. Yin, "31 GHz n-i-p waveguide photodetectros on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Expr. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).

K.-S. Lai, J.-C. Huang, K.Y.-J. Hsu, "High-responsivity photodetector in standard SiGe BICMOS Technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 800-801 (2007).

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-M. Hsin, "A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 197-199 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. Hermans, M. S. J. Steyaert, "A high-speed 850-nm optical receiver front-end in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1606 (2006).

C. L. Schow, "15-Gb/s 2.4-V optical receiver using Ge-on- SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).

2004 (1)

G. Dehlinger, "High-speed germanium-on SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).

2003 (1)

B. Yang, J. D. Schaub, S. M. Csutak, D. L. Rogers, J. C. Campbell, "10-Gb/s all-silicon optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 745-747 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. M. Csutak, J. D. Schaub, W. E. Wu, R. Shimer, J. C. Campbell, "CMOS-compatible high-speed planar silicon photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 193-196 (2002).

C.-Y. Lee, T.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kao, "Methods for noise isolation in RFCMOS ICs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).

M. Yang, "A high-speed high-sensitivity silicon lateral trench photodetector," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).

M. K. Emsley, "Silicon substrates with buried distributed bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 948-955 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, M. S. Csutak, J. C. Campbell, "High-speed monolithic silicon photoreceivers on high resistivity and SOI substrates," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 272-278 (2001).

2000 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

B. Huber, "InP-InGaAs single HBT technology for photoreceiver OEIC's at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 992-1000 (2000).

O. Qasaimeh, Z. Ma, P. Bhattacharya, E. T. Croke, "Monolithically integrated multichannel SiGe/Si p-in- HBT photoreceiver arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1548-1553 (2000).

1999 (3)

C. L. Schow, R. Li, J. D. Schaub, J. C. Campbell, "Design and implementation of high-speed planar si photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1478-1482 (1999).

H. Zimmermann, T. Heide, A. Ghazi, "Monolithic high-speed CMOS-photoreceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 254-256 (1999).

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krisahnamoorthy, "1-Gb/s Integrated optical detectors and receivers in commercial CMOS technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 146-156 (1999).

1998 (2)

Y. Miyamoto, M. Yoneyama, K. Hagimoto, T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, "40 Gbit/s high sensitivity optical receiver with uni-travelling carrier photodiode acting as a decision IC driver," IEEE Electron. Lett. 34, 214-215 (1998).

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, J. C. Campbell, "A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon nMOS optical receiver," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 1035-1039 (1998).

1996 (1)

L. D. Garret, J. Qi, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, "A silicon-based integrated NMOS-p-i-n photoreceiver," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 43, 411-416 (1996).

1995 (1)

H. C. Lee, B. V. Zeghbroeck, "A novel high-speed silicon MSM photodetector operating at 830 nm wavelength," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 175-177 (1995).

1994 (1)

N. Kistler, J. Woo, "Detailed characterization and analysis of the breakdown voltage in fully depleted SOI nMOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 41, 1217-1221 (1994).

1993 (1)

I.-Y. Leu, A. Neugroschel, "Minority-carrier transport paramters in heavily doped p-type silicon at 296 and 77 K," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 40, 1872-1875 (1993).

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, "Optical interconnections for vlsi systems," Proc. IEEE 72, 850-866 (1984).

1983 (1)

P. J. Holly, L. A. Akers, "Latch-up prevention using an N-well Epi-CMOS process," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device ED-30, 1403-1405 (1983).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (4)

K.-S. Lai, J.-C. Huang, K.Y.-J. Hsu, "High-responsivity photodetector in standard SiGe BICMOS Technology," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 12, 800-801 (2007).

H. C. Lee, B. V. Zeghbroeck, "A novel high-speed silicon MSM photodetector operating at 830 nm wavelength," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 175-177 (1995).

M. Yang, "A high-speed high-sensitivity silicon lateral trench photodetector," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).

C.-Y. Lee, T.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kao, "Methods for noise isolation in RFCMOS ICs," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 395-397 (2002).

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Miyamoto, M. Yoneyama, K. Hagimoto, T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu, "40 Gbit/s high sensitivity optical receiver with uni-travelling carrier photodiode acting as a decision IC driver," IEEE Electron. Lett. 34, 214-215 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

S. M. Csutak, J. D. Schaub, W. E. Wu, R. Shimer, J. C. Campbell, "CMOS-compatible high-speed planar silicon photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 193-196 (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. L. Schow, R. Li, J. D. Schaub, J. C. Campbell, "Design and implementation of high-speed planar si photodiodes fabricated on SOI substrates," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1478-1482 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

C. L. Schow, J. D. Schaub, R. Li, J. Qi, J. C. Campbell, "A 1-Gb/s monolithically integrated silicon nMOS optical receiver," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 1035-1039 (1998).

M. K. Emsley, "Silicon substrates with buried distributed bragg reflectors for resonant cavity-enhanced optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 948-955 (2002).

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krisahnamoorthy, "1-Gb/s Integrated optical detectors and receivers in commercial CMOS technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 146-156 (1999).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

C. Hermans, M. S. J. Steyaert, "A high-speed 850-nm optical receiver front-end in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1606 (2006).

A. Narasimha, "A fully integrated 4$\,\times\,$10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 42, 2736-2744 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

B. Yang, J. D. Schaub, S. M. Csutak, D. L. Rogers, J. C. Campbell, "10-Gb/s all-silicon optical receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 745-747 (2003).

C. L. Schow, "15-Gb/s 2.4-V optical receiver using Ge-on- SOI photodiode and a CMOS IC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1981-1983 (2006).

W.-K. Huang, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-M. Hsin, "A high-speed and high-responsivity photodiode in standard CMOS technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 197-199 (2007).

H. Zimmermann, T. Heide, A. Ghazi, "Monolithic high-speed CMOS-photoreceiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 254-256 (1999).

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wohl, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, "Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1510-1512 (2005).

G. Dehlinger, "High-speed germanium-on SOI lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Device (4)

L. D. Garret, J. Qi, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, "A silicon-based integrated NMOS-p-i-n photoreceiver," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 43, 411-416 (1996).

P. J. Holly, L. A. Akers, "Latch-up prevention using an N-well Epi-CMOS process," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device ED-30, 1403-1405 (1983).

I.-Y. Leu, A. Neugroschel, "Minority-carrier transport paramters in heavily doped p-type silicon at 296 and 77 K," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 40, 1872-1875 (1993).

N. Kistler, J. Woo, "Detailed characterization and analysis of the breakdown voltage in fully depleted SOI nMOSFET's," IEEE Trans. Electron. Device 41, 1217-1221 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, M. S. Csutak, J. C. Campbell, "High-speed monolithic silicon photoreceivers on high resistivity and SOI substrates," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 272-278 (2001).

B. Huber, "InP-InGaAs single HBT technology for photoreceiver OEIC's at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 992-1000 (2000).

O. Qasaimeh, Z. Ma, P. Bhattacharya, E. T. Croke, "Monolithically integrated multichannel SiGe/Si p-in- HBT photoreceiver arrays," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1548-1553 (2000).

Opt. Expr. (1)

T. Yin, "31 GHz n-i-p waveguide photodetectros on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Expr. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).

J. W. Goodman, "Optical interconnections for vlsi systems," Proc. IEEE 72, 850-866 (1984).

Other (7)

LAN/MAN CSMA/CD Access Method IEEE Standard 802.3-2005.

J. Staley, S. Muknahallipatna, H. Johnson, "Fibre channel based storage area network modeling using OPNET for large fabric simulations: Preliminary work," Proc. 32nd IEEE Conf. Local Comp. Net. (2007) pp. 234-236.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, C. Gunn, "A 1550 nm, 10 Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130 nm CMOS with Integrated GE waveguide photodetector," Proc. Group IV Phot. 2007 4th IEEE Int. Conf. (2007) pp. 28-30.

H. Zimmermann, Integrated Silicon Optic-Electronics (Springer, 2000).

S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2002).

J. L. Polleux, C. Rumelhard, "Optical absorption coefficient determination and physical modelling of strained SiGe/Si photodetectors," Proc. High Perform. Elect. Dev. Micr. and Optoelect. Appl. 8th IEEE Int. Symp. (2000) pp. 167-172.

S. Radovanović, A. J. Annema, B. Nauta, "High-speed lateral polysilicon photodiode in standard CMOS technology," Proc. 33rd Conf. Euro. Solid-State Dev. Research (2003) pp. 521-4.

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