Abstract

The properties of highly nonlinear glasses for photonic devices and the advantages of processing these materials using femtosecond laser pulses are discussed in a brief review. A novel approach is proposed for the optimization of the modification process that takes into account the dispersion of the nonlinear coefficients of refraction and absorption. Numerical modeling of the pulse energy deposition into a sample of chalcogenide glass shows that the shapes and dimensions of the modified regions depend on the nonlinear coefficients.

© 2009 IEEE

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  26. E. A. Romanova, A. I. Konyukhov, "Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of materials modification by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Spectroscopy 104, 781-790 (2008).
  27. J. S. Petrovic, V. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, I. Bennion, "Model of the femtosecond laser inscription by a single pulse," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 939-946 (2007).
  28. I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, (2007) 043506.
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  30. L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007) 024101.
  31. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys.B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
  32. W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "A wide-angle vector beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1118-1120 (1992).
  33. Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, "Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 127-137 (1997).
  34. P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. D. Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, A. Antonelli, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
  35. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
  36. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 9443-9458 (2008).

2008 (2)

E. A. Romanova, A. I. Konyukhov, "Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of materials modification by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Spectroscopy 104, 781-790 (2008).

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 9443-9458 (2008).

2007 (10)

M. Hughes, W. Yang, D. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 131113.

L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007) 024101.

J. S. Petrovic, V. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, I. Bennion, "Model of the femtosecond laser inscription by a single pulse," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 939-946 (2007).

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, (2007) 043506.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 15776-15781 (2007).

S. K. Turitsyn, V. K. Mezentsev, M. Dubov, A. M. Rubenchik, M. P. Fedoruk, E. V. Podivilov, "Sub-critical regime of femtosecond inscription," Opt. Exp. 15, 14750-14764 (2007).

V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggelton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits," Opt. Exp. 15, 9205-9221 (2007).

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 738-749 (2007).

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, "Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed features," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 353, 1302-1306 (2007).

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Exp. 15, 14414-14421 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

J. M. Laniel, N. Ho, R. Vallee, "Nonlinear-refractive-index measurement in ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ channel waveguides by asymmetric self-phase modulation," JOSA B 22, 437-445 (2005).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) 013517.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys.B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

A. K. Mairaj, P. Hua, H. N. Rutt, D. W. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1578-1583 (2002).

S. Spalter, H. Y. Hwang, J. Zimmermann, G. Lenz, T. Katsufuji, S.-W. Cheong, R. E. Slusher, "Strong self-phase modulation in planar chalcogenide glass waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 363-365 (2002).

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).

2001 (3)

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, A. N. Stepanov, "Formation of microstructures in ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ by a femtosecond laser pulse train," Quantum Electron. 31, 25-31 (2001).

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. W. Liu, A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

1997 (1)

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, "Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 127-137 (1997).

1995 (1)

A. Seddon, "Chalcogenide glasses: A review of their preparation, properties and applications," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 184, 44-50 (1995).

1994 (1)

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. D. Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, A. Antonelli, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).

1992 (1)

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "A wide-angle vector beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1118-1120 (1992).

1991 (2)

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).

1983 (1)

H. S. Brandi, C. B. de Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16, 5929-5936 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. W. Liu, A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).

M. Hughes, W. Yang, D. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 131113.

Appl. Phys.B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huttman, G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys.B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, E. M. Wright, K. Cook, P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, C. R. Thompson, "Theory and simulation on the threshold of water breakdown induced by focused ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 127-137 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, F. Poletti, P. Horak, V. Finazzi, J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, J. C. Flanagan, G. Brambilla, X. Feng, D. J. Richardson, "Mid-IR supercontinuum generation from nonsilica microstructured optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 738-749 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "A wide-angle vector beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1118-1120 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, (2007) 043506.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) 013517.

M. E. Lines, "Oxide glasses for fast photonic switching: A comparative study," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6876-6884 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. K. Mairaj, P. Hua, H. N. Rutt, D. W. Hewak, "Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1578-1583 (2002).

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (2)

W. J. Pan, D. Furniss, H. Rowe, C. A. Miller, A. Loni, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, "Fine embossing of chalcogenide glasses: First time submicron definition of surface embossed features," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 353, 1302-1306 (2007).

A. Seddon, "Chalcogenide glasses: A review of their preparation, properties and applications," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 184, 44-50 (1995).

J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. (1)

H. S. Brandi, C. B. de Araujo, "Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: A universal curve," J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16, 5929-5936 (1983).

JOSA B (1)

J. M. Laniel, N. Ho, R. Vallee, "Nonlinear-refractive-index measurement in ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ channel waveguides by asymmetric self-phase modulation," JOSA B 22, 437-445 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (5)

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 9443-9458 (2008).

V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggelton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits," Opt. Exp. 15, 9205-9221 (2007).

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 15776-15781 (2007).

S. K. Turitsyn, V. K. Mezentsev, M. Dubov, A. M. Rubenchik, M. P. Fedoruk, E. V. Podivilov, "Sub-critical regime of femtosecond inscription," Opt. Exp. 15, 14750-14764 (2007).

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Exp. 15, 14414-14421 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mater. 17, 379-386 (2001).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. S. Petrovic, V. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, I. Bennion, "Model of the femtosecond laser inscription by a single pulse," Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 939-946 (2007).

Opt. Spectroscopy (1)

E. A. Romanova, A. I. Konyukhov, "Study of irradiation conditions and thermodynamics of optical glass in the problem of materials modification by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Spectroscopy 104, 781-790 (2008).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. Hallo, A. Bourgeade, V. T. Tikhonchuk, C. Mezel, J. Breil, "Model and numerical simulations of the propagation and absorption of a short laser pulse in a transparent dielectric material: Blast-wave launch and cavity formation," Phys. Rev. B 76, (2007) 024101.

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. D. Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, A. Antonelli, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in ${\hbox {SiO}}_{2}$," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. P. Aleksandrov, A. A. Babin, A. M. Kiselev, D. I. Kulagin, V. V. Lozhkarev, A. N. Stepanov, "Formation of microstructures in ${\hbox {As}}_{2}{\hbox {S}}_{3}$ by a femtosecond laser pulse train," Quantum Electron. 31, 25-31 (2001).

Other (2)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP (, 1965) pp. 1307-1316.

G. Raybon, Y. Su, J. Leuthold, R. Essiambre, T. Her, C. Joergensen, P. Steinvurzel, K. Dreyer, K. Feder, "40 Gbit/s pseudo-linear transmission over one million kilometres," Proc. Conf. Opt. Commun. (OFC'2002) (2002).

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