Abstract

In this paper, using the 2-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we study a novel biosensor based on collimation effects in photonic crystals (PCs) with negative refractive index. Coupling the collimated beam to a line of air holes (sensing region) filled with normal air, dry air, liquid, and gas is thoroughly investigated. It is shown that by an appropriate selection of design parameters, such as, the air cylinder radii and coupling distance, it is possible to achieve ultracompact sensing platforms. The collimation effect features channel allocation in nanosystems and high sensitivity for biomolecules sensing applications.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
  2. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
  3. M. Skorobogatiy, A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518-14351 (2006).
  4. S. Boutami, B. B. Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. R. -Romeo, P. Regreny, M. Garrigues, P. Viktorovitch, "Photonic crystal-based MOEMS devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 244-252 (2007).
  5. W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).
  6. S. Haxha, W. Belhadj, F. AbdelMalek, H. Bouchriha, "Analyses of wavelength demultiplexer based on photonic crystals," IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152, 193-198 (2005).
  7. W. Aroua, F. Ouerghi, S. Haxha, F. AbdelMalek, M. Mejatty, H. Bouchriha, V. Haxha, "Analysis and optimisation of high density photonic crystal devices in a subystem by use of finite difference time domain," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 2, 10-15 (2008).
  8. R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A. Smith, K. Kash, "Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753-4755 (1994).
  9. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
  10. H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Okouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 6606-6614 (2004).
  11. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
  12. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystal refractionlike behaviour in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
  13. M. Qiu, L. Thylen, M. Swillo, B. Jaskorzynska, "Wave propagation through a photonic crystal in a negative phase refractive-index region," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 106-110 (2000).
  14. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).
  15. X. Wang, Z. F. Ren, K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Exp. 12, 2919-2924 (2004).
  16. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamic of substances with simultaneously negative values of $\varepsilon$ and $\mu$," Sov. Phys. USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).
  17. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
  18. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
  19. S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-107402-4 (2003).
  20. X. Ao, S. He, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal of negative refraction achieved by interference lithography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2542-2544 (2004).
  21. R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085106-1-085106-5 (2005).
  22. F. AbdelMalek, W. Belhadj, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Realization of high coupling efficiency by employing a concave lens based on 2-D photonic crystals with negative refractive index," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3168-3174 (2007).
  23. C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 201104-201107 (2002).
  24. C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115-045129 (2003).
  25. W. Belhadj, D. Gamra, F. AbdelMalek, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Design of photonic crystal structure based in all-angle negative refractive effect for application in focusing systems," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 1, 91-95 (2007).
  26. P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, "Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 193105-193108 (2005).
  27. J. Garcia-Pomar, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Waveguiding, collimation and subwavelength concentration in photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 7997-8007 (2005).
  28. H. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. Qian, D. Fan, "Collimations and negative refraction by slabs of 2-D photonic crystals with periodically-aligned tube-type air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3519-3530 (2007).
  29. S. K. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).
  30. K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
  31. H. M. Masmoudi, M. A. Al-Sunaidi, J. M. Arnold, "Efficient time-domain beam-propagation method for modeling integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 759-771 (2001).
  32. J. P. A. Berenger, "Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
  33. N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, S. K. Varsheney, M. Koshiba, "Fluidic sensors based on photonic crystal fiber gratings: Impact of the ambient temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2206-2208 (2006).

2008

W. Aroua, F. Ouerghi, S. Haxha, F. AbdelMalek, M. Mejatty, H. Bouchriha, V. Haxha, "Analysis and optimisation of high density photonic crystal devices in a subystem by use of finite difference time domain," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 2, 10-15 (2008).

2007

S. Boutami, B. B. Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. R. -Romeo, P. Regreny, M. Garrigues, P. Viktorovitch, "Photonic crystal-based MOEMS devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 244-252 (2007).

F. AbdelMalek, W. Belhadj, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Realization of high coupling efficiency by employing a concave lens based on 2-D photonic crystals with negative refractive index," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3168-3174 (2007).

W. Belhadj, D. Gamra, F. AbdelMalek, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Design of photonic crystal structure based in all-angle negative refractive effect for application in focusing systems," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 1, 91-95 (2007).

H. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. Qian, D. Fan, "Collimations and negative refraction by slabs of 2-D photonic crystals with periodically-aligned tube-type air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3519-3530 (2007).

2006

N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, S. K. Varsheney, M. Koshiba, "Fluidic sensors based on photonic crystal fiber gratings: Impact of the ambient temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2206-2208 (2006).

M. Skorobogatiy, A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518-14351 (2006).

2005

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).

S. Haxha, W. Belhadj, F. AbdelMalek, H. Bouchriha, "Analyses of wavelength demultiplexer based on photonic crystals," IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152, 193-198 (2005).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, "Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 193105-193108 (2005).

J. Garcia-Pomar, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Waveguiding, collimation and subwavelength concentration in photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 7997-8007 (2005).

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085106-1-085106-5 (2005).

2004

X. Ao, S. He, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal of negative refraction achieved by interference lithography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2542-2544 (2004).

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Okouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 6606-6614 (2004).

X. Wang, Z. F. Ren, K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Exp. 12, 2919-2924 (2004).

2003

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-107402-4 (2003).

C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115-045129 (2003).

2002

C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 201104-201107 (2002).

2001

H. M. Masmoudi, M. A. Al-Sunaidi, J. M. Arnold, "Efficient time-domain beam-propagation method for modeling integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 759-771 (2001).

2000

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystal refractionlike behaviour in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

M. Qiu, L. Thylen, M. Swillo, B. Jaskorzynska, "Wave propagation through a photonic crystal in a negative phase refractive-index region," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 106-110 (2000).

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

1996

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

1994

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A. Smith, K. Kash, "Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753-4755 (1994).

J. P. A. Berenger, "Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

1990

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).

1987

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).

1968

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamic of substances with simultaneously negative values of $\varepsilon$ and $\mu$," Sov. Phys. USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).

1966

S. K. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Skorobogatiy, A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518-14351 (2006).

IEE Proc., Optoelectron.

S. Haxha, W. Belhadj, F. AbdelMalek, H. Bouchriha, "Analyses of wavelength demultiplexer based on photonic crystals," IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 152, 193-198 (2005).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

H. M. Masmoudi, M. A. Al-Sunaidi, J. M. Arnold, "Efficient time-domain beam-propagation method for modeling integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 759-771 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

S. Boutami, B. B. Bakir, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, C. Seassal, P. R. -Romeo, P. Regreny, M. Garrigues, P. Viktorovitch, "Photonic crystal-based MOEMS devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 244-252 (2007).

W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. M. de Ridder, "Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 11-16 (2005).

M. Qiu, L. Thylen, M. Swillo, B. Jaskorzynska, "Wave propagation through a photonic crystal in a negative phase refractive-index region," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 106-110 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, S. K. Varsheney, M. Koshiba, "Fluidic sensors based on photonic crystal fiber gratings: Impact of the ambient temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2206-2208 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

S. K. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).

IET Proc., Optoelectron.

W. Belhadj, D. Gamra, F. AbdelMalek, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Design of photonic crystal structure based in all-angle negative refractive effect for application in focusing systems," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 1, 91-95 (2007).

W. Aroua, F. Ouerghi, S. Haxha, F. AbdelMalek, M. Mejatty, H. Bouchriha, V. Haxha, "Analysis and optimisation of high density photonic crystal devices in a subystem by use of finite difference time domain," IET Proc., Optoelectron. 2, 10-15 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A. Smith, K. Kash, "Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 4753-4755 (1994).

J. Comput. Phys.

J. P. A. Berenger, "Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol.

F. AbdelMalek, W. Belhadj, S. Haxha, H. Bouchriha, "Realization of high coupling efficiency by employing a concave lens based on 2-D photonic crystals with negative refractive index," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3168-3174 (2007).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

Nature

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

Opt. Exp.

X. Wang, Z. F. Ren, K. Kempa, "Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal," Opt. Exp. 12, 2919-2924 (2004).

H. Nakamura, Y. Sugimoto, K. Kanamoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, Y. Nakamura, S. Okouchi, Y. Watanabe, K. Inoue, H. Ishikawa, K. Asakawa, "Ultra-fast photonic crystal/quantum dot all-optical switch for future photonic networks," Opt. Exp. 12, 6606-6614 (2004).

J. Garcia-Pomar, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Waveguiding, collimation and subwavelength concentration in photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 13, 7997-8007 (2005).

H. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. Qian, D. Fan, "Collimations and negative refraction by slabs of 2-D photonic crystals with periodically-aligned tube-type air holes," Opt. Exp. 15, 3519-3530 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 085106-1-085106-5 (2005).

C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B. 65, 201104-201107 (2002).

C. Y. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115-045129 (2003).

P. A. Belov, C. R. Simovski, "Canalization of subwavelength images by electromagnetic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 71, 193105-193108 (2005).

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystal refractionlike behaviour in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refraction like behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B. 62, 10696-10705 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402-1-107402-4 (2003).

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).

K. M. Leung, Y. F. Liu, "Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).

Sov. Phys. USPEKI

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamic of substances with simultaneously negative values of $\varepsilon$ and $\mu$," Sov. Phys. USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.