Abstract

We have developed a vertically pluggable and compact 12-channel optical module for intercabinet and intracabinet optical interconnections. Error-free and over 10 Gb/s operation of the optical module with an electrical and optical connector have been demonstrated. The module is designed to be 10 mm in width, 10 mm in length, and 6 mm in thickness so that it can be placed around the central processing units. This compact optical module can be mounted on the inner board area. Further, this module is vertically pluggable in the ${z}$-direction, i.e., in a direction that is perpendicular to the board. Because of the vertical pluggability, the optical modules can be repaired much more easily. The optical connector used in the low-height module has 12 fine-drawn graded-index multimode fibers (MMFs). These fibers have a high relative refractive index difference ($\Delta$) and are bent with a 2 mm radius of curvature. The electrical connector consists of an anisotropic conductive film that is sandwiched between an alumina substrate and a printed circuit board with a clamp spring. We have used the alumina substrate to mount the optical device and the driver integrated circuit, because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to reduce cost, we have not used either a microlens or a metal-coated mirror in the optical module. Furthermore, passive alignment between the MMFs and the optical device has been achieved using guide pins assembled in the alumina substrate.

© 2009 IEEE

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  14. H. Miyoshi, I. Hatakeyama, J. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, T. Watanabe, J. Ushioda, Y. Hashimoto, R. Kuribayashi, K. Kurata, "A 400 Gb/s backplane switch with 10 Gbps/port optical I/O interfaces based on OIP (optical interconnection as IP of a CMOS library)," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).
  15. Y. Taira, H. Numata, F. Yamada, Y. Katayama, S. Nakagawa, M. Hasegawa, K. Terada, Y. Tsukada, "OE device integration for optically enabled MCM," Proc. 57th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 1262-1267.
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  17. E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, D. Lu, H. Braunisch, T. Thomas, S. Hyvonen, S. Palermo, I. A. Young, "Optical hybrid package with an 8-channel 18 GT/s CMOS transceiver for chip-to-chip optical interconnect," Proc. SPIE Photonics Packaging, Integration, and Interconnects VIII (Proceedings Volume) (2008).
  18. http://www.popoptics.org/.
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  20. A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).
  21. T. Ishikawa, A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "High-density and low-cost 10-Gbps$\,\times\,$12 ch optical modules for high-end optical interconnect applications," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008).
  22. A. Suzuki, T. Ishikawa, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "10-Gb/s$\,\times\,$12-ch downsized optical modules with electrical conductive film connector," Proc. 58th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 250-255.
  23. A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, H. Masuda, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "High optical coupling efficiency using 45$^{\circ}$-ended fibre for low-height and low-cost optical interconnect modules," Electron. Lett. 44, 724-725 (2008).
  24. Y. Wakazono, A. Suzuki, D. Nagao, T. Ishikawa, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "A study on coupling efficiency between VCSEL and 45$^{\circ}$–angled mirror component for low-cost and high-density 10 Gbps/ch optical parallel link module," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS) (2007) pp. 678-679.
  25. T. Ohno, M. Ono, S. Wakamatsu, A. Kawamura, T. Horio, A. Suzuki, T. Kojima, T. Takada, M. Okuyama, "Alignment arrangement for low-cost embedded optical interconnection module," Proc. of 37th Int. Symp. Microelectronics (IMAPS) (2004).
  26. MEG-Array Datasheet FCI http://portal.fciconnect.com/res/en/pdffiles/datasheets/950554–007_MEG-Array.pdf.
  27. Inter Connector MT Type, Thickness: 0.1 mm, 0.25,mm, 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm & 2.0 mm Final Report Shin-Etsu polymer Co., LtdTokyoJapan (2001).

2008 (1)

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, H. Masuda, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "High optical coupling efficiency using 45$^{\circ}$-ended fibre for low-height and low-cost optical interconnect modules," Electron. Lett. 44, 724-725 (2008).

2006 (4)

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

M. J. O'Mahony, C. Politi, D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, "Future optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4684-4696 (2006).

E. B. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

L. Shares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Petal, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, M. R. T. Tan, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. W. Dolfi, "Terabus: Tb/s-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

2004 (4)

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, D. W. Dolfi, "MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-the-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).

L. A. Buckman Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Parallel-optical interconnects $ > 100\;{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2055-2063 (2004).

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H. –M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, "Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications Gb/s error-free transmission," Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-129 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. G. Ger, K. W. Goossen, W. Y. Jan, H. H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persaud, G. J. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, A. V. Krishinamoorthy, "A 36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 387-399 (2003).

2000 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, "Optical interconnects in systems," Proc. IEEE 88, 750-757 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, H. Masuda, T. Ishikawa, Y. Hashimoto, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "High optical coupling efficiency using 45$^{\circ}$-ended fibre for low-height and low-cost optical interconnect modules," Electron. Lett. 44, 724-725 (2008).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

L. Shares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Petal, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, M. R. T. Tan, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. W. Dolfi, "Terabus: Tb/s-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

C. Cook, J. E. Cunningham, A. Hargrove, G. G. Ger, K. W. Goossen, W. Y. Jan, H. H. Kim, R. Krause, M. Manges, M. Morrissey, M. Perinpanayagam, A. Persaud, G. J. Shevchuk, V. Sinyansky, A. V. Krishinamoorthy, "A 36-channel parallel optical interconnect module based on optoelectronics-on-VLSI technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 387-399 (2003).

Intel Technol. J. (1)

E. Mohammed, A. Alduino, T. Thomas, H. Braunisch, D. Lu, J. Heck, A. Liu, I. Young, B. Barnett, G. Vandentop, R. Mooney, "Optical interconnect system integration for ultra-short-reach applications Gb/s error-free transmission," Intel Technol. J. 8, 114-129 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

L. A. Buckman Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Parallel-optical interconnects $ > 100\;{\rm Gb}/{\rm s}$," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2055-2063 (2004).

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H. –M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

M. J. O'Mahony, C. Politi, D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, "Future optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4684-4696 (2006).

E. B. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

B. E. Lemoff, M. E. Ali, G. Panotopoulos, G. M. Flower, B. Madhavan, A. F. J. Levi, D. W. Dolfi, "MAUI: Enabling fiber-to-the-processor with parallel multiwavelength optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2043-2054 (2004).

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. F. J. Levi, "Optical interconnects in systems," Proc. IEEE 88, 750-757 (2000).

Other (15)

D. M. Kuchta, C. Baks, E. Mintarno, D. N. de Araujo, M. Cases, "Optical high speed symmetric multi-processor link implementation," Proc. of 46th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (ECTC) (2006) pp. 1573-1577.

P. Pepeljugoski, M. Ritter, A. Kash, F. Doany, C. Schow, Y. Kwark, L. Shan, D. Kam, X. Gu, C. Baks, "Comparison of bandwidth limit for on-card electrical and optical interconnects for 100 Gb/s and beyond," Proc. SPIE Optoelectron. Integr. Circ. X (Proceedings Volume) (2008).

E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, D. Lu, H. Braunisch, T. Thomas, S. Hyvonen, S. Palermo, I. A. Young, "Optical hybrid package with an 8-channel 18 GT/s CMOS transceiver for chip-to-chip optical interconnect," Proc. SPIE Photonics Packaging, Integration, and Interconnects VIII (Proceedings Volume) (2008).

http://www.popoptics.org/.

T. Mikawa, "Low-cost high-density optical parallel link modules and optical backplane for the last 1-meter regime applications," Proc. SPIE Photon. Packag. Integr. Interconn. VIII (Proceedings Volume) (2008) pp. xi-xx.

A. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, S. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Masuda, K. Saito, M. Kinoshita, O. Ibaragi, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, Y. Okada, M. Aoyagi, "Low-cost and high-density 10 Gbps/ch optical parallel link module for multi-terabit router application," Proc. 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2006).

I. Hatakeyama, K. Miyoshi, J. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, T. Watanabe, J. Ushioda, Y. Hashimoto, R. Kuribayashi, K. Kurata, "A 400 Gb/s backplane switch with 10 Gbps/port optical I/O interfaces," Proc. SPIE Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications V (Proceedings Volume) (2005) pp. 60140J-1-60140J-7.

H. Miyoshi, I. Hatakeyama, J. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, M. Kurihara, T. Watanabe, J. Ushioda, Y. Hashimoto, R. Kuribayashi, K. Kurata, "A 400 Gb/s backplane switch with 10 Gbps/port optical I/O interfaces based on OIP (optical interconnection as IP of a CMOS library)," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005).

Y. Taira, H. Numata, F. Yamada, Y. Katayama, S. Nakagawa, M. Hasegawa, K. Terada, Y. Tsukada, "OE device integration for optically enabled MCM," Proc. 57th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2007) pp. 1262-1267.

T. Ishikawa, A. Suzuki, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "High-density and low-cost 10-Gbps$\,\times\,$12 ch optical modules for high-end optical interconnect applications," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008).

A. Suzuki, T. Ishikawa, Y. Wakazono, D. Nagao, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, Y. Okada, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "10-Gb/s$\,\times\,$12-ch downsized optical modules with electrical conductive film connector," Proc. 58th Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2008) pp. 250-255.

Y. Wakazono, A. Suzuki, D. Nagao, T. Ishikawa, T. Hino, Y. Hashimoto, H. Masuda, S. Suzuki, M. Tamura, T. Suzuki, K. Kikuchi, H. Nakagawa, M. Aoyagi, T. Mikawa, "A study on coupling efficiency between VCSEL and 45$^{\circ}$–angled mirror component for low-cost and high-density 10 Gbps/ch optical parallel link module," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS) (2007) pp. 678-679.

T. Ohno, M. Ono, S. Wakamatsu, A. Kawamura, T. Horio, A. Suzuki, T. Kojima, T. Takada, M. Okuyama, "Alignment arrangement for low-cost embedded optical interconnection module," Proc. of 37th Int. Symp. Microelectronics (IMAPS) (2004).

MEG-Array Datasheet FCI http://portal.fciconnect.com/res/en/pdffiles/datasheets/950554–007_MEG-Array.pdf.

Inter Connector MT Type, Thickness: 0.1 mm, 0.25,mm, 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm & 2.0 mm Final Report Shin-Etsu polymer Co., LtdTokyoJapan (2001).

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