Abstract

The optical properties of four fluorene oligomers embedded in plastic optical fiber have been investigated by using steady-state luminescence technique. In particular, we study the dependence of the optical spectra with dopant oligofluorene, emission wavelength, excitation wavelength, and light propagation distance through the fiber. Using this information, we have characterized the optical loss in these doped optical fibers.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. J. Zubia, J. Arrue, "Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).
  2. T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421-2423 (1997).
  3. Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, P. Dai, B. Yang, M. Hai, J. P. Xie, "Amplified spontaneous emission of an ${\rm Nd}^{3 +}$-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407-409 (1998).
  4. K. Kuriki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Plastic optical fiber lasers and amplifiers containing lanthanide complexes," Chem. Rev. 102, 2347-2356 (2002).
  5. R. Gvishi, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, "New laser medium: Dye-doped sol-gel fiber," Opt. Commun. 126, 66-72 (1996).
  6. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331-333 (2000).
  7. G. V. Maier, T. N. Kopylova, V. Svetlichnyi, V. Podgaetskii, S. M. Dolotov, O. V. Ponomareva, A. E. Monich, E. A. Monich, "Active polymer fibres doped with organic dyes: Generation and amplification of coherent radiation," Quantum Electron. 37, 53-59 (2007).
  8. M. Rajesh, M. Sheeba, K. Geetha, C. Vallaban, P. Radhakrishnan, V. Nampoori, "Fabrication and characterization of dye-doped polymer optical fiber as a light amplifier," Appl. Opt. 46, 106-112 (2007).
  9. G. D. Peng, P. K. Chu, Z. Xiong, T. W. Whitbread, R. P. Chaplin, "Dye-doped step-index polymer optical fiber for broadband opticalamplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2215-2223 (1996).
  10. F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: A new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).
  11. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
  12. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).
  13. J. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. Laskowski, M. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).
  14. L. Bazzana, G. Lanzani, R. Xia, J. Morgado, S. Schrader, D. G. Lidzey, "Plastic optical fibers with embedded organic semiconductors for signal amplification," Proc. POF 2007 () pp. 327-332.
  15. J. Clark, L. Bazzana, D. Bradley, J. Gonzalez, G. Lanzani, D. Lidzey, J. Morgado, A. Nocivelli, W. Tsoi, T. Virgili, R. Xia, "Blue polymer optical fiber amplifiers based on conjugated fluorene oligomers," J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008) 023505.
  16. T. Virgili, D. Marinotto, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, "Ultrafast intrachain photoexcitation of polymeric semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117402-117402 (2005).
  17. D. Amarasinghe, A. Ruseckas, A. E. Vasdekis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, "Picosecond gain switching of an organic semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) 083305.
  18. G. Heliotis, D. Bradley, G. Turnbull, I. Samuel, "Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 415-417 (2002).
  19. R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, D. D. C. Bradley, "Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media," Organic Electronics 4, 165-177 (2003).
  20. J. Morgado, L. Alcacer, A. Charas, "Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-based light-emitting diodes with pure beta-phase emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 201110.
  21. R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. I. principles," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1749-1755 (1999).
  22. R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. II. Applications to squaraine-dye-doped polymer optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1756-1767 (1999).
  23. M. Sheeba, M. Rajesh, V. P. N. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, "Fabrication and characterization of dye mixture doped polymer optical fiber as a broad wavelength optical amplifier," Appl. Opt. 47, 1907-1912 (2008).
  24. W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, O. Ziemann, POF Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer, 2002).

2008 (3)

J. Clark, L. Bazzana, D. Bradley, J. Gonzalez, G. Lanzani, D. Lidzey, J. Morgado, A. Nocivelli, W. Tsoi, T. Virgili, R. Xia, "Blue polymer optical fiber amplifiers based on conjugated fluorene oligomers," J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008) 023505.

D. Amarasinghe, A. Ruseckas, A. E. Vasdekis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, "Picosecond gain switching of an organic semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) 083305.

M. Sheeba, M. Rajesh, V. P. N. Nampoori, P. Radhakrishnan, "Fabrication and characterization of dye mixture doped polymer optical fiber as a broad wavelength optical amplifier," Appl. Opt. 47, 1907-1912 (2008).

2007 (3)

J. Morgado, L. Alcacer, A. Charas, "Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-based light-emitting diodes with pure beta-phase emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 201110.

G. V. Maier, T. N. Kopylova, V. Svetlichnyi, V. Podgaetskii, S. M. Dolotov, O. V. Ponomareva, A. E. Monich, E. A. Monich, "Active polymer fibres doped with organic dyes: Generation and amplification of coherent radiation," Quantum Electron. 37, 53-59 (2007).

M. Rajesh, M. Sheeba, K. Geetha, C. Vallaban, P. Radhakrishnan, V. Nampoori, "Fabrication and characterization of dye-doped polymer optical fiber as a light amplifier," Appl. Opt. 46, 106-112 (2007).

2005 (1)

T. Virgili, D. Marinotto, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, "Ultrafast intrachain photoexcitation of polymeric semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117402-117402 (2005).

2003 (1)

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, D. D. C. Bradley, "Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media," Organic Electronics 4, 165-177 (2003).

2002 (2)

G. Heliotis, D. Bradley, G. Turnbull, I. Samuel, "Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 415-417 (2002).

K. Kuriki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Plastic optical fiber lasers and amplifiers containing lanthanide complexes," Chem. Rev. 102, 2347-2356 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Zubia, J. Arrue, "Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331-333 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. Laskowski, M. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).

R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. I. principles," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1749-1755 (1999).

R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. II. Applications to squaraine-dye-doped polymer optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1756-1767 (1999).

1998 (1)

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, P. Dai, B. Yang, M. Hai, J. P. Xie, "Amplified spontaneous emission of an ${\rm Nd}^{3 +}$-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407-409 (1998).

1997 (2)

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421-2423 (1997).

1996 (4)

R. Gvishi, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, "New laser medium: Dye-doped sol-gel fiber," Opt. Commun. 126, 66-72 (1996).

G. D. Peng, P. K. Chu, Z. Xiong, T. W. Whitbread, R. P. Chaplin, "Dye-doped step-index polymer optical fiber for broadband opticalamplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2215-2223 (1996).

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: A new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. Morgado, L. Alcacer, A. Charas, "Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-based light-emitting diodes with pure beta-phase emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) 201110.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331-333 (2000).

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421-2423 (1997).

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, P. Dai, B. Yang, M. Hai, J. P. Xie, "Amplified spontaneous emission of an ${\rm Nd}^{3 +}$-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407-409 (1998).

J. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. Laskowski, M. Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257-3259 (1999).

D. Amarasinghe, A. Ruseckas, A. E. Vasdekis, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, "Picosecond gain switching of an organic semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, (2008) 083305.

G. Heliotis, D. Bradley, G. Turnbull, I. Samuel, "Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 415-417 (2002).

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. Kuriki, Y. Koike, Y. Okamoto, "Plastic optical fiber lasers and amplifiers containing lanthanide complexes," Chem. Rev. 102, 2347-2356 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

G. D. Peng, P. K. Chu, Z. Xiong, T. W. Whitbread, R. P. Chaplin, "Dye-doped step-index polymer optical fiber for broadband opticalamplification," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2215-2223 (1996).

J. Nanophotonics (1)

J. Clark, L. Bazzana, D. Bradley, J. Gonzalez, G. Lanzani, D. Lidzey, J. Morgado, A. Nocivelli, W. Tsoi, T. Virgili, R. Xia, "Blue polymer optical fiber amplifiers based on conjugated fluorene oligomers," J. Nanophotonics 2, (2008) 023505.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. I. principles," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1749-1755 (1999).

R. J. Kruhlak, M. G. Kuzyk, "Side-illumination fluorescence spectroscopy. II. Applications to squaraine-dye-doped polymer optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 16, 1756-1767 (1999).

Nature (2)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, Z. Bao, "Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer," Nature 389, 466-469 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Gvishi, G. Ruland, P. N. Prasad, "New laser medium: Dye-doped sol-gel fiber," Opt. Commun. 126, 66-72 (1996).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Zubia, J. Arrue, "Plastic optical fibers: An introduction to their technological processes and applications," Opt. Fiber Technol. 7, 101-140 (2001).

Organic Electronics (1)

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, Y. Hou, D. D. C. Bradley, "Fluorene-based conjugated polymer optical gain media," Organic Electronics 4, 165-177 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Virgili, D. Marinotto, C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, G. Lanzani, "Ultrafast intrachain photoexcitation of polymeric semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117402-117402 (2005).

Quantum Electron. (1)

G. V. Maier, T. N. Kopylova, V. Svetlichnyi, V. Podgaetskii, S. M. Dolotov, O. V. Ponomareva, A. E. Monich, E. A. Monich, "Active polymer fibres doped with organic dyes: Generation and amplification of coherent radiation," Quantum Electron. 37, 53-59 (2007).

Science (1)

F. Hide, M. Diaz-Garcia, B. Schwartz, M. Andersson, Q. Pei, A. Heeger, "Semiconducting polymers: A new class of solid-state laser materials," Science 273, 1833-1836 (1996).

Other (2)

L. Bazzana, G. Lanzani, R. Xia, J. Morgado, S. Schrader, D. G. Lidzey, "Plastic optical fibers with embedded organic semiconductors for signal amplification," Proc. POF 2007 () pp. 327-332.

W. Daum, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, O. Ziemann, POF Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer, 2002).

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