Abstract

We present a flexible quantum key distribution (QKD) system implementation using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) encoding. Two detection techniques are implemented and compared: a photon counting detection scheme using single photon avalanche diodes (SPAD) and a dual-threshold balanced homodyne detection (BHD) using standard PIN diodes in which the weak signal is time-multiplexed with a strong reference. The interferometer instability and the system phase fluctuations are compensated by an optoelectronic feedback loop that allows an automatic continuous operation. We compare the QKD system performance for both schemes in terms of BER and key generation efficiency. Finally, we analyze the BHD QKD system security under the potential individual intercept-resend attack and the intermediate-base attack.

© 2009 IEEE

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  30. X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).
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  32. H.-K. Lo, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
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2007 (3)

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, J. M. Geremia, "Optical coherent state discrimination using a real-time closed-loop quantum measurement," Nature 446, 774-777 (2007).

Q. Xu, M. B. Costa e Silva, P. Gallion, F. Mendieta, "One way differential QPSK quantum key with channel impairment compensation," CLEO/Europe-IQEC JSI-3 (2007).

D. Rosenberg, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. G. Webb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, "Homodyne measurement of the average photon number," Phys. Rev. A 73, 033808 (2006).

N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, G. Ribordy, "Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems," Phys. Rev. A 73, 022320 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Tech. 23, 115-130 (2005).

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon pulse-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503-1-230503-4 (2005).

H.-K. Lo, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).

2004 (3)

V. Makarov, A. Brylevski, D. R. Hjelme, "Real-time phase tracking in single-photon interferometers," J. Appl. Opt. 43, 4385-4392 (2004).

M. Koashi, "Unconditional security of coherent state quantum key distribution with a strong reference phase pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120501 (2004).

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

2003 (4)

R. Namiki, T. Hirano, "Security of quantum cryptography using balanced homodyne detection," Phys. Rev. A 67, 022308 (2003).

B. B. Elliott, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, G. Troxel, "Path-length control in an interferometric QKD link," Quantum Information and Computation, Proc. SPIE 5105, 26-38 (2003).

T. Hirano, H. Yamanaka, M. Ashikaga, T. Konishi, R. Namiki, "Quantum cryptography using pulsed homodyne detection," Phys. Rev. A 68, 042331 (2003).

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phy. 74, 145-195 (2002).

F. Grosshans, P. Grangier, "Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057902 (2002).

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).

H. Zbinden, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, "Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography," Electron. Lett. 33, 586-588 (1997).

1995 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).

1990 (2)

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, "Performance of coherent optical receivers," Proc. IEEE 78, 1369-1393 (1990).

T. Chikama, T. Naito, S. Watanabe, T. Kiyonaga, M. Suyama, H. Kuwahara, "Optical heterodyne image-rejection receiver for high-density optical frequency division multiplexing system," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1087-1094 (1990).

1988 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, J.-M. Robert, "Privacy amplification by public discussion," SIAM J. Comput. 17, 1919-1923 (1988).

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, "Optical communication with 2-photon coherent states. 3. Quantum measurements realizable with photo-emissive detectors," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26, 78-82 (1980).

1963 (1)

R. J. Glauber, "Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field," Phys. Rev. 131, 2766-2788 (1963).

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623-656 (1948).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, "‘Plug and play’ systems for quantum cryptography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793-795 (1997).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423, 623-656 (1948).

CLEO/Europe-IQEC JSI-3 (1)

Q. Xu, M. B. Costa e Silva, P. Gallion, F. Mendieta, "One way differential QPSK quantum key with channel impairment compensation," CLEO/Europe-IQEC JSI-3 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Zbinden, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, B. Huttner, A. Muller, W. Tittel, "Interferometry with Faraday mirrors for quantum cryptography," Electron. Lett. 33, 586-588 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

T. Chikama, T. Naito, S. Watanabe, T. Kiyonaga, M. Suyama, H. Kuwahara, "Optical heterodyne image-rejection receiver for high-density optical frequency division multiplexing system," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1087-1094 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Xu, X. Liu, X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281-293 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (2)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).

H. P. Yuen, J. H. Shapiro, "Optical communication with 2-photon coherent states. 3. Quantum measurements realizable with photo-emissive detectors," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26, 78-82 (1980).

J. Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Makarov, A. Brylevski, D. R. Hjelme, "Real-time phase tracking in single-photon interferometers," J. Appl. Opt. 43, 4385-4392 (2004).

J. Lightw. Tech. (3)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Tech. 23, 115-130 (2005).

T. Okoshi, "Recent advances in coherent optical fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Tech. 5, 44-52 (Jan. 1987).

L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers," J. Lightw. Tech. 4, 182-195 (Feb. 1986).

Nature (1)

R. L. Cook, P. J. Martin, J. M. Geremia, "Optical coherent state discrimination using a real-time closed-loop quantum measurement," Nature 446, 774-777 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. J. Glauber, "Coherent and incoherent states of the radiation field," Phys. Rev. 131, 2766-2788 (1963).

Phys. Rev. A (5)

T. Hirano, H. Yamanaka, M. Ashikaga, T. Konishi, R. Namiki, "Quantum cryptography using pulsed homodyne detection," Phys. Rev. A 68, 042331 (2003).

J. G. Webb, T. C. Ralph, E. H. Huntington, "Homodyne measurement of the average photon number," Phys. Rev. A 73, 033808 (2006).

X.-F. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, H.-K. Lo, "Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012326 (2005).

N. Gisin, S. Fasel, B. Kraus, H. Zbinden, G. Ribordy, "Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems," Phys. Rev. A 73, 022320 (2006).

R. Namiki, T. Hirano, "Security of quantum cryptography using balanced homodyne detection," Phys. Rev. A 67, 022308 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

W.-Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).

M. Koashi, "Unconditional security of coherent state quantum key distribution with a strong reference phase pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 120501 (2004).

X.-B. Wang, "Beating the photon pulse-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503-1-230503-4 (2005).

H.-K. Lo, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).

D. Rosenberg, "Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010503 (2007).

F. Grosshans, P. Grangier, "Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057902 (2002).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. R. Barry, E. A. Lee, "Performance of coherent optical receivers," Proc. IEEE 78, 1369-1393 (1990).

Quantum Information and Computation, Proc. SPIE (1)

B. B. Elliott, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, G. Troxel, "Path-length control in an interferometric QKD link," Quantum Information and Computation, Proc. SPIE 5105, 26-38 (2003).

Rev. Mod. Phy. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phy. 74, 145-195 (2002).

SIAM J. Comput. (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, J.-M. Robert, "Privacy amplification by public discussion," SIAM J. Comput. 17, 1919-1923 (1988).

Other (7)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. Int. Conf. Comput., Syst. & Signal Process. (1984) pp. 175-179.

C. W. Helstrom, Quantum Detection and Estimation Theory, Mathematics in Science and Engineering (Academic Press, 1976).

Q. Xu, M. B. Costa e Silva, P. Gallion, F. Mendieta, "Auto-compensating quantum Crypto-system using homodyne detection," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2008 .

"Single-photon detection with InGaAs/InP avalanche photodetectors," Single-Photon Detector Module: Application Note http://www.idquantique.com Id Quantique.

MagiQ Quantum Cryptography Test Bed: Uncompromising Research Results (2005) http://www.magiqtech.com MagiQ Technologies, Inc..

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

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