Abstract

In this paper, we present a numerical model to study counter pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers. An improved finite-difference beam propagation method for solving the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is applied for the first time in the counterpropagation regime. In our model, group velocity dispersion, two-photon absorption, ultrafast nonlinear refraction, and the change in the gain peak wavelength with carrier density are included, which have not been considered simultaneously in previous counterpropagation models. The model is applied to demonstrate how a subpicosecond and picosecond probe pulse shape and spectrum can be modified by a counterpropagating pump pulse. Based on the results obtained by this model, while subpicosecond probe pulses can be compressed by in this scheme, their time-bandwidth product are also improved significantly. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters are analyzed to obtain the proper probe spectral peak shift using counterpropagating probe pulses. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the new scheme are assessed through numerical examples and are shown to be superior to previously published approaches.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).
  2. R. Gutiérrez-Castrejón, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).
  3. L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the $\alpha$-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).
  4. H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, D. Lenstra, "All-optical switching of an ultrashort pulse using a semiconductor optical amplifier in a Sagnac-interferometric arrangement," Opt. Commun. 205, 247-252 (2002).
  5. H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, L. Yong, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).
  6. K. E. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 1428-1435 (2000).
  7. C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C.-S. Park, "Optical pulse shaping by cross-phase modulation in a harmonic mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser under large cavity detuning," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1237-1246 (2006).
  8. D. Nesset, T. Kelly, D. Marcenac, "All-optical wavelength conversion using SOA nonlinearities," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56-61 (1998).
  9. A. Hamié, A. Sharaiha, M. Guegan, J. L. Bihan, "All-optical inverted and noninverted wavelength conversion using two-cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1229-1231 (2005).
  10. M. Amaya, A. Sharaiha, F. Ginovart, "Comparison between co- and counter-propagative optical injection near the transparency wavelength on SOA static and dynamic performances," Opt. Commun. 246, 67-71 (2005).
  11. A. Sharaiha, A. Hamie, "Comprehensive analysis of two cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers for all-optical switching operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 850-858 (2004).
  12. S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, J. Mørk, "Bidirectional four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).
  13. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  14. L. Schares, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. G. Weber, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Phase dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifiers at 10–40 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1394-1408 (2003).
  15. A. Mecozzi, J. Mørk, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).
  16. P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, F. Martelli, "Measurement and calculation of the critical pulsewidth for gain saturation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 164, 51-55 (1999).
  17. R. S. Grant, W. Sibbet, "Observations of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an InGaAsP optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1119-1121 (1991).
  18. M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, "Subpicosecond pulse amplification in semiconductor laser amplifiers: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1122-1131 (1994).
  19. J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Strong picosecond optical pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers at transparency," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1263-1269 (1998).
  20. K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Performance analysis of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor-optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 78-85 (1998).
  21. Y. Kim, H. Lee, S. Kim, J. Ko, J. Jeong, "Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate signals by four-wave mixing in SOA's," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 5, 873-879 (1999).
  22. A. E. Willner, W. Shieh, "Optimal spectral and power parameters for all-optical wavelength shifting: Single stage, fanout, and cascadability," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 771-781 (1995).
  23. N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).
  24. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Detailed dynamic model for semiconductor optical amplifiers and their crosstalk and intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1056-1065 (1992).
  25. G. Toptchiyski, S. Kindt, K. Petermann, E. Hilliger, S. Diez, H. G. Weber, "Time-domain modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers for OTDM applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2577-2583 (1999).
  26. J. W. D. Chi, C. Lu, M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large-signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).
  27. R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).
  28. J. Shibayama, A. Yamahira, T. Mugita, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "A finite-difference time-domain beam-propagation method for TE- and TM-wave analyses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1709-1715 (2003).
  29. C. Ma, E. Van Keuren, "A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 402-407 (2007).
  30. M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, S. Dijaili, F. G. Patterson, "Femtosecond self- and cross-phase modulation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 2, 523-539 (1996).
  31. L. M. Zhang, S. F. Yu, M. C. Nowell, D. D. Marcenac, J. E. Carroll, R. G. S. Plumb, "Dynamic analysis of radiation and side-mode suppression in a second-order DFB laser using time-domain large-signal traveling wave model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1389-1395 (1994).
  32. H. Adachihara, R. A. Indik, J. V. Moloney, "Semiconductor laser array dynamics: Numerical simulations on multistripe index-guided lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 496 (1993).
  33. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, B. P. Flannery, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992).
  34. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).
  35. C. M. de Sterke, K. R. Jackson, B. D. Robert, "Nonlinear coupled-mode equations on a finite interval: A numerical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 403 (1991).
  36. A. Fernandez, P. Morel, J. W. D. Chi, "Temporal and spectral properties of contra-propagating picosecond optical pulses in SOA," Opt. Commun. 259, 465-469 (2006).
  37. J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Active picosecond optical pulse compression in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 93-100 (1999).

2007 (1)

C. Ma, E. Van Keuren, "A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 402-407 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Fernandez, P. Morel, J. W. D. Chi, "Temporal and spectral properties of contra-propagating picosecond optical pulses in SOA," Opt. Commun. 259, 465-469 (2006).

C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C.-S. Park, "Optical pulse shaping by cross-phase modulation in a harmonic mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser under large cavity detuning," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1237-1246 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. Hamié, A. Sharaiha, M. Guegan, J. L. Bihan, "All-optical inverted and noninverted wavelength conversion using two-cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1229-1231 (2005).

M. Amaya, A. Sharaiha, F. Ginovart, "Comparison between co- and counter-propagative optical injection near the transparency wavelength on SOA static and dynamic performances," Opt. Commun. 246, 67-71 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Sharaiha, A. Hamie, "Comprehensive analysis of two cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers for all-optical switching operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 850-858 (2004).

2003 (4)

L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the $\alpha$-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).

H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, L. Yong, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).

L. Schares, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. G. Weber, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Phase dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifiers at 10–40 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1394-1408 (2003).

J. Shibayama, A. Yamahira, T. Mugita, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "A finite-difference time-domain beam-propagation method for TE- and TM-wave analyses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1709-1715 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, D. Lenstra, "All-optical switching of an ultrashort pulse using a semiconductor optical amplifier in a Sagnac-interferometric arrangement," Opt. Commun. 205, 247-252 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. W. D. Chi, C. Lu, M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large-signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).

2000 (4)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).

K. E. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 1428-1435 (2000).

R. Gutiérrez-Castrejón, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).

1999 (5)

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, F. Martelli, "Measurement and calculation of the critical pulsewidth for gain saturation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 164, 51-55 (1999).

S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, J. Mørk, "Bidirectional four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).

Y. Kim, H. Lee, S. Kim, J. Ko, J. Jeong, "Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate signals by four-wave mixing in SOA's," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 5, 873-879 (1999).

G. Toptchiyski, S. Kindt, K. Petermann, E. Hilliger, S. Diez, H. G. Weber, "Time-domain modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers for OTDM applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2577-2583 (1999).

J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Active picosecond optical pulse compression in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 93-100 (1999).

1998 (3)

J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Strong picosecond optical pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers at transparency," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1263-1269 (1998).

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Performance analysis of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor-optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 78-85 (1998).

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, D. Marcenac, "All-optical wavelength conversion using SOA nonlinearities," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56-61 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. Mecozzi, J. Mørk, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, S. Dijaili, F. G. Patterson, "Femtosecond self- and cross-phase modulation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 2, 523-539 (1996).

1995 (1)

A. E. Willner, W. Shieh, "Optimal spectral and power parameters for all-optical wavelength shifting: Single stage, fanout, and cascadability," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 771-781 (1995).

1994 (2)

L. M. Zhang, S. F. Yu, M. C. Nowell, D. D. Marcenac, J. E. Carroll, R. G. S. Plumb, "Dynamic analysis of radiation and side-mode suppression in a second-order DFB laser using time-domain large-signal traveling wave model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1389-1395 (1994).

M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, "Subpicosecond pulse amplification in semiconductor laser amplifiers: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1122-1131 (1994).

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Detailed dynamic model for semiconductor optical amplifiers and their crosstalk and intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1056-1065 (1992).

1991 (2)

C. M. de Sterke, K. R. Jackson, B. D. Robert, "Nonlinear coupled-mode equations on a finite interval: A numerical procedure," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 403 (1991).

R. S. Grant, W. Sibbet, "Observations of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an InGaAsP optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1119-1121 (1991).

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. S. Grant, W. Sibbet, "Observations of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an InGaAsP optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1119-1121 (1991).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. Nesset, T. Kelly, D. Marcenac, "All-optical wavelength conversion using SOA nonlinearities," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 56-61 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (10)

R. Gutiérrez-Castrejón, L. Schares, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Modeling and measurement of longitudinal gain dynamics in saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers of different length," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1476-1484 (2000).

H. J. S. Dorren, D. Lenstra, L. Yong, M. T. Hill, G. D. Khoe, "Nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and application to all-optical flip-flop memories," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 141-148 (2003).

M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, "Subpicosecond pulse amplification in semiconductor laser amplifiers: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1122-1131 (1994).

J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Strong picosecond optical pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers at transparency," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1263-1269 (1998).

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

L. Schares, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. G. Weber, L. Occhi, G. Guekos, "Phase dynamics of semiconductor optical amplifiers at 10–40 GHz," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1394-1408 (2003).

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).

J. W. D. Chi, C. Lu, M. K. Rao, "Time-domain large-signal investigation on nonlinear interactions between an optical pulse and semiconductor waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1329-1336 (2001).

L. M. Zhang, S. F. Yu, M. C. Nowell, D. D. Marcenac, J. E. Carroll, R. G. S. Plumb, "Dynamic analysis of radiation and side-mode suppression in a second-order DFB laser using time-domain large-signal traveling wave model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1389-1395 (1994).

J. M. Tang, K. A. Shore, "Active picosecond optical pulse compression in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 93-100 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. (6)

M. Y. Hong, Y. H. Chang, A. Dienes, J. P. Heritage, P. J. Delfyett, S. Dijaili, F. G. Patterson, "Femtosecond self- and cross-phase modulation in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 2, 523-539 (1996).

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, "Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 150-162 (2000).

Y. Kim, H. Lee, S. Kim, J. Ko, J. Jeong, "Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate signals by four-wave mixing in SOA's," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 5, 873-879 (1999).

A. Mecozzi, J. Mørk, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

K. E. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 6, 1428-1435 (2000).

L. Occhi, L. Schares, G. Guekos, "Phase modeling based on the $\alpha$-factor in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum. Electron. 9, 788-797 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Hamié, A. Sharaiha, M. Guegan, J. L. Bihan, "All-optical inverted and noninverted wavelength conversion using two-cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1229-1231 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

A. Sharaiha, A. Hamie, "Comprehensive analysis of two cascaded semiconductor optical amplifiers for all-optical switching operation," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 850-858 (2004).

S. Bischoff, A. Buxens, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, J. Mørk, "Bidirectional four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1617-1625 (1999).

C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C.-S. Park, "Optical pulse shaping by cross-phase modulation in a harmonic mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser under large cavity detuning," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1237-1246 (2006).

K. Obermann, S. Kindt, D. Breuer, K. Petermann, "Performance analysis of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor-optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 78-85 (1998).

A. E. Willner, W. Shieh, "Optimal spectral and power parameters for all-optical wavelength shifting: Single stage, fanout, and cascadability," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 771-781 (1995).

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Detailed dynamic model for semiconductor optical amplifiers and their crosstalk and intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1056-1065 (1992).

G. Toptchiyski, S. Kindt, K. Petermann, E. Hilliger, S. Diez, H. G. Weber, "Time-domain modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers for OTDM applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2577-2583 (1999).

J. Shibayama, A. Yamahira, T. Mugita, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "A finite-difference time-domain beam-propagation method for TE- and TM-wave analyses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1709-1715 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. Fernandez, P. Morel, J. W. D. Chi, "Temporal and spectral properties of contra-propagating picosecond optical pulses in SOA," Opt. Commun. 259, 465-469 (2006).

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, F. Martelli, "Measurement and calculation of the critical pulsewidth for gain saturation in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 164, 51-55 (1999).

H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, D. Lenstra, "All-optical switching of an ultrashort pulse using a semiconductor optical amplifier in a Sagnac-interferometric arrangement," Opt. Commun. 205, 247-252 (2002).

M. Amaya, A. Sharaiha, F. Ginovart, "Comparison between co- and counter-propagative optical injection near the transparency wavelength on SOA static and dynamic performances," Opt. Commun. 246, 67-71 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. Ma, E. Van Keuren, "A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 402-407 (2007).

Other (3)

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, B. P. Flannery, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.