Abstract

The validity of two new approaches to tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) in the near-IR, namely the residual amplitude modulation approach and the phasor decomposition method, is investigated for application in industrial process monitoring where the operating temperatures and pressures are high and subject to significant change. Both techniques allow the recovery of absolute absorption profile line shapes and are completely calibration free, making them very attractive for online deployment in stand alone instrumentation in harsh environments where the calibration factors in conventional TDLS methods are subject to significant cumulative errors and drift. Currently established TDLS techniques, and indeed conventional gas composition analysis techniques, suffer from significant limitations when applied under these conditions, and there is a clear need for the development of a suitable alternative. The primary focus in this work is the analysis of water vapor in solid oxide fuel cell diagnostics where the operating temperatures range from 700$^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$ to 950$^{\circ}{\hbox{C}}$, the gas pressures are subject to change and the recovered signal levels are low. The 1391.7 nm overtone water vapor transition is interrogated over the above temperature range of interest at concentrations of 6%–50%, while the 1650.96 nm methane transition is also analyzed over a range of gas pressures at a fixed concentration of 1%. Excellent agreement between the experimentally recovered absorption line shapes and simulations based on parameters from the HITRAN (2004) database is observed; further evidence for the efficacy of the techniques is demonstrated through the accuracy of the gas concentration measurements which were achieved by curve-fitting absorption line shape simulations to the experimental data.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. E. D. Hinkley, "High-resolution infrared spectroscopy with a tunable diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 351-354 (1970).
  2. J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, "High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 17, 300-307 (1978).
  3. J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, "High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 17, 1806-1810 (1978).
  4. D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).
  5. M. Lowenstein, "Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 40, 249-256 (1988).
  6. B. A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, "Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: Comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser," Appl. Opt. 31, 718-731 (1992).
  7. D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, "Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity ingaasp diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 27, 2688-2693 (1988).
  8. F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, "Frequency- and wavelength- modulation spectroscopies: Comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 56, 118-122 (1993).
  9. A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, "Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions," Appl. Opt. 32, 5211-5216 (1993).
  10. A. Lucchesini, M. D. Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, "Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 227-282 (1996).
  11. M. Gabrysh, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, "Simultaneous detection of CO and ${\hbox{CO}}_{2}$ using a semiconductor DFB diode laser at 1.578 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 65, 75-79 (1997).
  12. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, "Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 14, 1945-1950 (1997).
  13. B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realization," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 51, 25-37 (1998).
  14. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode laser based multi-component gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-50 (2000).
  15. S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, "Diode laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).
  16. H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurements of CO, ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ and gas temperature in a full sized coal fired power plant by near infra red diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-51 (2003).
  17. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-68 (2003).
  18. J. Reid, D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—Comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 26, 203-210 (1981).
  19. J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, "Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 33, 6294-6302 (1994).
  20. L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, "Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows," Appl. Opt. 32, 6090-6103 (1993).
  21. I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 67, 297-305 (1998).
  22. P. Kluczynski, O. Axner, "Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5803-5815 (1999).
  23. P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Characterization of background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of a Fourier based formalism," Appl. Opt. 40, 770-782 (2001).
  24. P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. theory," Appl. Opt. 40, 783-793 (2001).
  25. P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength modulation spectrometry by use of frequency-doubled diode-laser light. II. Experiment," Appl. Opt. 40, 794-805 (2001).
  26. S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: Combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).
  27. K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A Calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute line-shapes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3114-3125 (2007).
  28. A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).
  29. W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).
  30. G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, B. Tromborg, "Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Electron. Lett. 18, 874-876 (1982).
  31. T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).
  32. H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Extension of wavelength-modulations spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases," Appl. Opt. 45, 1052-1061 (2006).
  33. S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Direct frequency modulation InAlGaAs semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582-595 (1982).
  34. M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Carrier density dependence of refractive index in AlGaAs semi-conductor lasers," IEEE Quantum Electron. Lett. QE-16, 910-911 (1980).
  35. www.spectralcalc.com.
  36. J. Liu, Near Infrared Diode Laser Absorption Diagnostics for Temperature and Species in Engines (Stanford Univ., 2004).
  37. R. A. Toth, "Extensive measurements of ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 ${\hbox{cm}}^{-1}$," Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).
  38. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).
  39. J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, R. K. Hanson, "Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6701-6711 (2005).
  40. M. Gharavi, S. G. Buckley, "Single diode laser sensor for wide-range ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ temperature measurements," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 468-473 (2004).
  41. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ absorption transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature in ic engines," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).
  42. J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth $2f$ spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).
  43. M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, "Absorption-measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line shape parameters using a tunable ingaasp diode-laser," Appl. Opt. 32, 6104-6116 (1993).
  44. J. C. Nicolas, A. N. Baranov, Y. Cuminal, Y. Rouillard, C. Alibert, "Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of carbon monoxide around 2.35 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 37, 7906-7911 (1998).
  45. B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, "Diode laser measurement of line strengths and self-broadening parameters of water vapor between 300 and 1000 K near 1.31 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 653-670 (1997).
  46. D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, "New studies of the visible and NIR absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3703-3706 (2000).
  47. R. Peeters, G. Berden, G. Meijer, "Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of hot water and OH in an oven and in flames," Appl. Phys. B 73, 65-70 (2001).

2008 (2)

A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A Calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute line-shapes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3114-3125 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, R. K. Hanson, "Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6701-6711 (2005).

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ absorption transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature in ic engines," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: Combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurements of CO, ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ and gas temperature in a full sized coal fired power plant by near infra red diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-51 (2003).

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-68 (2003).

2002 (1)

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).

2001 (4)

2000 (3)

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, "New studies of the visible and NIR absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3703-3706 (2000).

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode laser based multi-component gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-50 (2000).

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, "Diode laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (3)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realization," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 51, 25-37 (1998).

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 67, 297-305 (1998).

J. C. Nicolas, A. N. Baranov, Y. Cuminal, Y. Rouillard, C. Alibert, "Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of carbon monoxide around 2.35 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 37, 7906-7911 (1998).

1997 (3)

B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, "Diode laser measurement of line strengths and self-broadening parameters of water vapor between 300 and 1000 K near 1.31 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 653-670 (1997).

M. Gabrysh, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, "Simultaneous detection of CO and ${\hbox{CO}}_{2}$ using a semiconductor DFB diode laser at 1.578 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 65, 75-79 (1997).

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, "Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 14, 1945-1950 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Lucchesini, M. D. Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, "Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 227-282 (1996).

1994 (2)

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, "Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 33, 6294-6302 (1994).

R. A. Toth, "Extensive measurements of ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 ${\hbox{cm}}^{-1}$," Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).

1993 (4)

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, "Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity ingaasp diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 27, 2688-2693 (1988).

M. Lowenstein, "Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 40, 249-256 (1988).

1982 (3)

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Direct frequency modulation InAlGaAs semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582-595 (1982).

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, B. Tromborg, "Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Electron. Lett. 18, 874-876 (1982).

1981 (1)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—Comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 26, 203-210 (1981).

1980 (1)

M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Carrier density dependence of refractive index in AlGaAs semi-conductor lasers," IEEE Quantum Electron. Lett. QE-16, 910-911 (1980).

1978 (2)

1970 (1)

E. D. Hinkley, "High-resolution infrared spectroscopy with a tunable diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 351-354 (1970).

Appl. Opt. (21)

J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, E. A. Ballik, "High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 17, 300-307 (1978).

J. Reid, B. K. Garside, J. Shewchun, M. El-Sherbiny, E. A. Ballik, "High sensitivity point monitoring of atmospheric gases employing tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 17, 1806-1810 (1978).

D. T. Cassidy, J. Reid, "Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 21, 1185-1190 (1982).

B. A. C. Stanton, J. A. Silver, "Frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopies: Comparison of experimental methods using a lead-salt diode laser," Appl. Opt. 31, 718-731 (1992).

D. T. Cassidy, L. J. Bonnell, "Trace gas detection with short-external-cavity ingaasp diode laser transmitter modules operating at 1.58 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 27, 2688-2693 (1988).

A. Lucchesini, I. Longo, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, L. Moi, "Diode laser spectroscopy of methane overtone transitions," Appl. Opt. 32, 5211-5216 (1993).

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, F. K. Tittel, "Development of an automated diode laser based multi-component gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 39, 4444-50 (2000).

H. Teichert, T. Fernholtz, V. Ebert, "Simultaneous in situ measurements of CO, ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ and gas temperature in a full sized coal fired power plant by near infra red diode lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2043-51 (2003).

P. Kluczynski, O. Axner, "Theoretical description based on Fourier analysis of wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of analytical and background signals," Appl. Opt. 38, 5803-5815 (1999).

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Characterization of background signals in wavelength-modulation spectrometry in terms of a Fourier based formalism," Appl. Opt. 40, 770-782 (2001).

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength modulation spectrometry with frequency-doubled diode-laser light. I. theory," Appl. Opt. 40, 783-793 (2001).

P. Kluczynski, A. M. Lindberg, O. Axner, "Background signals in wavelength modulation spectrometry by use of frequency-doubled diode-laser light. II. Experiment," Appl. Opt. 40, 794-805 (2001).

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, P. Robert, "Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: Combined frequency and intensity laser modulation," Appl. Opt. 42, 6728-6738 (2003).

J. M. Supplee, E. A. Whittaker, W. Lenth, "Theoretical description of frequency modulation and wavelength modulation spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 33, 6294-6302 (1994).

L. C. Philippe, R. K. Hanson, "Laser diode wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for simultaneous measurement of temperature, pressure and velocity in shock-heated oxygen flows," Appl. Opt. 32, 6090-6103 (1993).

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Extension of wavelength-modulations spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases," Appl. Opt. 45, 1052-1061 (2006).

R. A. Toth, "Extensive measurements of ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 ${\hbox{cm}}^{-1}$," Appl. Opt. 33, (1994).

J. T. C. Liu, G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, M. R. Gruber, C. D. Carter, T. Mathur, R. K. Hanson, "Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor," Appl. Opt. 44, 6701-6711 (2005).

J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Large-modulation-depth $2f$ spectroscopy with diode lasers for rapid temperature and species measurements in gases with blended and broadened spectra," Appl. Opt. 43, 6500-6509 (2004).

M. P. Arroyo, R. K. Hanson, "Absorption-measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature, and line shape parameters using a tunable ingaasp diode-laser," Appl. Opt. 32, 6104-6116 (1993).

J. C. Nicolas, A. N. Baranov, Y. Cuminal, Y. Rouillard, C. Alibert, "Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy of carbon monoxide around 2.35 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Opt. 37, 7906-7911 (1998).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

T. Fernholtz, H. Teichert, V. Ebert, "Digital, phase-sensitive detection for in situ diode laser spectroscopy under rapidly changing transmission conditions," Appl. Phys. B 75, 229-236 (2002).

R. Peeters, G. Berden, G. Meijer, "Near infrared cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy of hot water and OH in an oven and in flames," Appl. Phys. B 73, 65-70 (2001).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics (1)

M. Gabrysh, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, "Simultaneous detection of CO and ${\hbox{CO}}_{2}$ using a semiconductor DFB diode laser at 1.578 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 65, 75-79 (1997).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (4)

J. Reid, D. Labrie, "Second-harmonic detection with tunable diode lasers—Comparison of experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 26, 203-210 (1981).

A. Lucchesini, M. D. Rosa, D. Pellicia, A. Ciucci, C. Gabbanini, S. Gozzini, "Diode laser spectroscopy of overtone bands of acetylene," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 227-282 (1996).

F. S. Pavone, M. Inguscio, "Frequency- and wavelength- modulation spectroscopies: Comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs diode laser," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 56, 118-122 (1993).

I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, T. Jaeger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 67, 297-305 (1998).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. D. Hinkley, "High-resolution infrared spectroscopy with a tunable diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 351-354 (1970).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Jacobsen, H. Olesen, F. Birkedahl, B. Tromborg, "Current/frequency-modulation characteristics for directly optical frequency-modulated injection lasers at 830 nm and 1.3 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," Electron. Lett. 18, 874-876 (1982).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, "New studies of the visible and NIR absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3703-3706 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Direct frequency modulation InAlGaAs semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582-595 (1982).

IEEE Quantum Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Carrier density dependence of refractive index in AlGaAs semi-conductor lasers," IEEE Quantum Electron. Lett. QE-16, 910-911 (1980).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: System characterization in conventional and new approaches," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1079-1088 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A Calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute line-shapes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3114-3125 (2007).

A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A phasor decomposition method for calibration-free measurements of concentration and pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 432-440 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. (1)

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, "Modulation spectroscopy with a semiconductor diode laser by injection-current modulation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B: Opt. Phys. 14, 1945-1950 (1997).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

M. Lowenstein, "Diode laser harmonic spectroscopy applied to in situ measurements of atmospheric trace molecules," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 40, 249-256 (1988).

B. L. Upschulte, M. G. Allen, "Diode laser measurement of line strengths and self-broadening parameters of water vapor between 300 and 1000 K near 1.31 $\mu{\hbox{m}}$," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 59, 653-670 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapor concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-68 (2003).

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Selection of NIR ${\hbox{H}}_{2}{\hbox{O}}$ absorption transitions for in-cylinder measurement of temperature in ic engines," Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2437-2445 (2005).

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, "Development of a sensor for temperature and water concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459-1468 (2003).

Proc. Combust. Inst. (1)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, "Diode laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines," Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587-594 (2000).

Sens. Actuators B: Chem. (1)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realization," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 51, 25-37 (1998).

Other (2)

www.spectralcalc.com.

J. Liu, Near Infrared Diode Laser Absorption Diagnostics for Temperature and Species in Engines (Stanford Univ., 2004).

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