Abstract

Classical electromagnetic theory is applied to determine the eigenvalue equation and the fields of the allowed guided modes in a symmetric metal-clad planar uniaxial crystal waveguide for an arbitrary orientation of the optical axes. There are different hybrid guided modes in the different uniaxial crystals. For each mode, the conditions for their existence, the dispersion equation, and the accuracy of the solutions of the modal fields are analytically discussed. We report the propagation conditions and the asymmetry of various electric field distributions of the single modes.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. W. K. Burns, J. Warner, "Mode dispersion in uniaxial optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 441-446 (1974).
  3. H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, E. van Groesen, "Finite difference scheme for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profiles and its implementation for anisotropic waveguides with a diagonal permittivity tensor," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 407-427 (2003).
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  5. W. Liao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, Y. Chen, "Explicit analysis of anisotropic planar waveguides by the analytical transfer-matrix method," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 2196-2204 (2004).
  6. R. Pregla, "Modeling of planar waveguides with anisotropic layers of variable thickness by the method of lines," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 533-544 (2003).
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  8. T. A. Maldonado, T. K. Gaylord, "Hybrid guided modes in biaxial planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 486-499 (1996).
  9. M. Ciumac, Mihalache, "Properties of bragg reflectors composed of isotropic dielectric layers calded with birefringent media," IEEE J. Quantum Elctron. 32, 513-518 (1996).
  10. D. P. Gia Russo, J. H. Harris, "Wave propagation in anisotropic thin film optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 138-145 (1973).
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  23. H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).
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  26. J. N. Polky, G. L. Mitchell, "Metal-clad plannar dielectric waveguide for integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 274-279 (1974).
  27. M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. T. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sensors Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).
  28. D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, K. N. Tripathi, "Theoretical study of polymeric metal clad optical waveguide polarizer," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 397-401 (2005).
  29. S. S. Xian, "Accurate perturbation analysis of metal-clad and absorptive multilayer dielectric waveguides in near cutoff," Opt. Commun. 135, 241-246 (1997).
  30. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Acamedic Press, 1992) pp. 186-187.
  31. Z. W. Shi, Q. Guo, W. C. Xu, "Modal fields in planar symmetric metal-clad uniaxial waveguide," Acta Photon. Sin. 30, 1329-1332 (2001).
  32. Q. Guo, Z. W. Shi, "Model fields in a symmetric metal-clad planar uniaxial crystal waveguide," Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 1716-1723 (2002).
  33. G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, Q. Shen, "Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. No.081120.

2007

2006

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, Q. Shen, "Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. No.081120.

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, Q. Shen, "Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. No.081120.

2005

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, K. N. Tripathi, "Theoretical study of polymeric metal clad optical waveguide polarizer," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 397-401 (2005).

2004

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).

Y. S. Xu, "A study of waveguides filled with anisotropic metamaterials," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 426-431 (2004).

W. Liao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, Y. Chen, "Explicit analysis of anisotropic planar waveguides by the analytical transfer-matrix method," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 2196-2204 (2004).

2003

R. Pregla, "Modeling of planar waveguides with anisotropic layers of variable thickness by the method of lines," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 533-544 (2003).

H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, E. van Groesen, "Finite difference scheme for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profiles and its implementation for anisotropic waveguides with a diagonal permittivity tensor," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 407-427 (2003).

H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. Hoekstra, E. Vangroesen, "Finite difference scheme for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profiles and its implementation for anisotropic waveguides with a diagonal permittivity tensor," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 407-427 (2003).

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. T. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sensors Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).

2002

P. A. Koukoutsaki, I. G. Tigelis, A. B. Manenkov, "Guided-mode analysis by the Lanczos--Fourier expansion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 2293-2300 (2002).

Q. Guo, Z. W. Shi, "Model fields in a symmetric metal-clad planar uniaxial crystal waveguide," Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 1716-1723 (2002).

2001

Z. W. Shi, Q. Guo, W. C. Xu, "Modal fields in planar symmetric metal-clad uniaxial waveguide," Acta Photon. Sin. 30, 1329-1332 (2001).

1999

S. Gaal, "Surface integral method to determine guided modes in uniaxially anisotropic embedded waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 763-780 (1999).

1997

S. S. Xian, "Accurate perturbation analysis of metal-clad and absorptive multilayer dielectric waveguides in near cutoff," Opt. Commun. 135, 241-246 (1997).

L. Nuno, J. V. Balbastre, H. Castane, "Analysis of general lossy inhomogeneous and anisotropic waveguides by the finite-element method (FEM) using edge elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 446-449 (1997).

1996

T. A. Maldonado, T. K. Gaylord, "Hybrid guided modes in biaxial planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 486-499 (1996).

M. Ciumac, Mihalache, "Properties of bragg reflectors composed of isotropic dielectric layers calded with birefringent media," IEEE J. Quantum Elctron. 32, 513-518 (1996).

1993

G. Tartarini, P. Bassi, S. F. Chen, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, "Calculation of hybrid modes in uniaxial planar optical waveguides: Application to proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," Opt. Commun. 101, 424-431 (1993).

1990

M. A. Sletten, S. R. Seshadre, "Thick metal surface-polarition polarizer for planar optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 7, 1174-1184 (1990).

1989

Y. Tong, W. Yizun, "Theoretical study of metal-clad optical waveguide polarizer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1209-1213 (1989).

1988

L. Tsang, S. L. Chuang, "Improved coupled-mode theory for reciprocal anisotropic waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 304-311 (1988).

A. Knoessen, T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, "Hybrid guided modes in uniaxial dielectric planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-6, 1083-1104 (1988).

1981

J. Ctyroky, M. Cada, "Generalized WKB method for the analysis of light propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1064-1070 (1981).

R. C. Alferness, "Guided-wave divices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 946-959 (1981).

1974

W. K. Burns, J. Warner, "Mode dispersion in uniaxial optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 441-446 (1974).

J. N. Polky, G. L. Mitchell, "Metal-clad plannar dielectric waveguide for integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 274-279 (1974).

1973

D. P. Gia Russo, J. H. Harris, "Wave propagation in anisotropic thin-film optical waveguids," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 138-145 (1973).

D. P. Gia Russo, J. H. Harris, "Wave propagation in anisotropic thin film optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 138-145 (1973).

A. Reisinger, "Characteristics of optical guided modes in lossy waveguides," Appl. Opt. 12, 1015-1023 (1973).

Acta Photon. Sin.

Z. W. Shi, Q. Guo, W. C. Xu, "Modal fields in planar symmetric metal-clad uniaxial waveguide," Acta Photon. Sin. 30, 1329-1332 (2001).

Acta Phys. Sin.

Q. Guo, Z. W. Shi, "Model fields in a symmetric metal-clad planar uniaxial crystal waveguide," Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 1716-1723 (2002).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, Q. Shen, "Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. No.081120.

H. Lu, Z. Cao, H. Li, Q. Shen, "Study of ultrahigh-order modes in a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4579-4581 (2004).

H. Li, Z. Cao, H. Lu, Q. Shen, "Free-space coupling of a light beam into a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2757-2759 (2003).

G. Chen, Z. Cao, J. Gu, Q. Shen, "Oscillating wave sensors based on ultrahigh-order modes in symmetric metal-clad optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Art. No.081120.

IEEE J. Quantum Elctron.

M. Ciumac, Mihalache, "Properties of bragg reflectors composed of isotropic dielectric layers calded with birefringent media," IEEE J. Quantum Elctron. 32, 513-518 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Ctyroky, M. Cada, "Generalized WKB method for the analysis of light propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic optical waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1064-1070 (1981).

R. C. Alferness, "Guided-wave divices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 946-959 (1981).

Y. Tong, W. Yizun, "Theoretical study of metal-clad optical waveguide polarizer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1209-1213 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

L. Nuno, J. V. Balbastre, H. Castane, "Analysis of general lossy inhomogeneous and anisotropic waveguides by the finite-element method (FEM) using edge elements," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 446-449 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. Tsang, S. L. Chuang, "Improved coupled-mode theory for reciprocal anisotropic waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 304-311 (1988).

A. Knoessen, T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, "Hybrid guided modes in uniaxial dielectric planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-6, 1083-1104 (1988).

T. A. Maldonado, T. K. Gaylord, "Hybrid guided modes in biaxial planar waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 486-499 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

D. P. Gia Russo, J. H. Harris, "Wave propagation in anisotropic thin film optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 138-145 (1973).

D. P. Gia Russo, J. H. Harris, "Wave propagation in anisotropic thin-film optical waveguids," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 138-145 (1973).

W. K. Burns, J. Warner, "Mode dispersion in uniaxial optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 441-446 (1974).

J. N. Polky, G. L. Mitchell, "Metal-clad plannar dielectric waveguide for integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 64, 274-279 (1974).

M. A. Sletten, S. R. Seshadre, "Thick metal surface-polarition polarizer for planar optical waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 7, 1174-1184 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

W. Liao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xia, Y. Chen, "Explicit analysis of anisotropic planar waveguides by the analytical transfer-matrix method," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 21, 2196-2204 (2004).

P. A. Koukoutsaki, I. G. Tigelis, A. B. Manenkov, "Guided-mode analysis by the Lanczos--Fourier expansion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 2293-2300 (2002).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

Y. S. Xu, "A study of waveguides filled with anisotropic metamaterials," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 426-431 (2004).

Opt. Commun.

G. Tartarini, P. Bassi, S. F. Chen, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, "Calculation of hybrid modes in uniaxial planar optical waveguides: Application to proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," Opt. Commun. 101, 424-431 (1993).

S. S. Xian, "Accurate perturbation analysis of metal-clad and absorptive multilayer dielectric waveguides in near cutoff," Opt. Commun. 135, 241-246 (1997).

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, K. N. Tripathi, "Theoretical study of polymeric metal clad optical waveguide polarizer," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 397-401 (2005).

Opt. Quantum Electron.

H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. Hoekstra, E. Vangroesen, "Finite difference scheme for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profiles and its implementation for anisotropic waveguides with a diagonal permittivity tensor," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 407-427 (2003).

S. Gaal, "Surface integral method to determine guided modes in uniaxially anisotropic embedded waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 763-780 (1999).

R. Pregla, "Modeling of planar waveguides with anisotropic layers of variable thickness by the method of lines," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 533-544 (2003).

H. P. Uranus, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, E. van Groesen, "Finite difference scheme for planar waveguides with arbitrary index profiles and its implementation for anisotropic waveguides with a diagonal permittivity tensor," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 407-427 (2003).

Sensors Actuators B

M. Zourob, S. Mohr, B. J. T. Brown, P. R. Fielden, M. McDonnell, N. J. Goddard, "The development of a metal clad leaky waveguide sensor for the detection of particles," Sensors Actuators B 90, 296-307 (2003).

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Acamedic Press, 1992) pp. 186-187.

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