Abstract

We present a new model predicting the photosensitivity response of hydrogen/deuterium-loaded optical fibers used for the fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). This model considers space- and time-dependent hydrogen concentration as a key phenomenon to explain the growth rates of strong index changes ($ > 10 ^{-3}$). The model outputs are compared to several photosensitivity experiments made with three different fibers and different hydrogen-loading concentrations. The experimental results presented in this paper clearly show that the time interval between each step of the grating inscription has an impact on the overall photosensitivity response. Moreover, the proposed model confirms that the variations observed in the measured photosensitivity come from changes in hydrogen concentration resulting from its consumption by the photosensitivity reaction and its diffusion into the glass. This model will find application in the precise fabrication of strong FBGs by helping to predict the optimum writing conditions.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).
  2. H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J.Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).
  3. H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, "Growth of Bragg gratings produced by continuous-wave ultraviolet light in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1484-1486 (1993).
  4. M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica," Phys. Rev. B 64, 144-201 (2001).
  5. J. A. Besley, L. Reekie, C. Weeks, T. Wang, C. Murphy, "Grating writing model for materials with nonlinear photosensitive response," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2421-2428 (2003).
  6. G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Modified ${\rm F}$-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a novel nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2416- (2006).
  7. B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, "Effective index drift from molecular hydrogen diffusion in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and its effect on Bragg grating fabrication," Electron. Lett. 30, 442-444 (1994).
  8. P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, "Study of hydrogen diffusion in boron/germanium codoped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1933-1941 (2002).
  9. G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, "Modeling of the nonlinear photosensitivity response of hydrogen-loaded germanium-doped optical fiber in the presence of hydrogen diffusion and depletion," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, (Optical Society of America) (2007).
  10. B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche, "The photorefractive Bragg gratings in the fibers for telecommunications," J. Phys. III 6, 1595-1624 (1996).
  11. B. Poumellec, M. Douay, J. C. Krupa, J. Garapon, P. Niay, "Comparison of UV optical absorption and UV excited luminescence behaviours in Ge doped silica under H2 loading or CW UV laser irradiation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 319-334 (2003).
  12. J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser-induced index changes in optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 275-289 (2000).
  13. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, "Amplification of fibre Bragg grating reflectivity by post-writing exposure with a 193 nm ArF laser," Electron. Lett. 30, 1133-1134 (1994).
  14. D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV post-exposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).
  15. S. H. Moffat, S. J. Mihailov, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, D. Grobnic, "Influence of fringeless UV post-exposure on index modulation amplitude in fiber Bragg gratings," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, (Optical Society of America) (1999).
  16. P. Tandon, "Chemical annealing of oxygen hole centers in bulk glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 212-217 (2004).
  17. S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Rybaltovsky, "Increased solubility of molecular hydrogen in UV-exposed germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 11-13 (2006).
  18. P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: Prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).
  19. J. Stone, "Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 712-733 (1987).
  20. J. N. Reddy, An Introduction to the Finite Element Method (McGraw-Hill, 1993).
  21. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  22. P. J. Lemaire, W. A. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Thermal enhancement of UV photosensitivity in H2-loaded optical fibers," Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America) (1995).
  23. G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavík, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multiwavelength distributed Fabry-Pérot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44 (2005).
  24. W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, "Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber–scanning beam technique," Opt. Lett. 20, 2051-2053 (1995).
  25. P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Local coupling-coefficient characterization in fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).
  26. G. M. H. Flockhart, G. A. Cranch, C. K. Kirkendall, "Rapid characterization of the ultraviolet induced fiber Bragg grating complex coupling coefficient as a function of irradiance and exposure time," Appl. Opt. 46, 8237-8243 (2007).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

S. A. Vasiliev, O. I. Medvedkov, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Rybaltovsky, "Increased solubility of molecular hydrogen in UV-exposed germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 11-13 (2006).

G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Modified ${\rm F}$-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a novel nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2416- (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavík, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multiwavelength distributed Fabry-Pérot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44 (2005).

2004 (1)

P. Tandon, "Chemical annealing of oxygen hole centers in bulk glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 212-217 (2004).

2003 (3)

J. A. Besley, L. Reekie, C. Weeks, T. Wang, C. Murphy, "Grating writing model for materials with nonlinear photosensitive response," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2421-2428 (2003).

B. Poumellec, M. Douay, J. C. Krupa, J. Garapon, P. Niay, "Comparison of UV optical absorption and UV excited luminescence behaviours in Ge doped silica under H2 loading or CW UV laser irradiation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 319-334 (2003).

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Local coupling-coefficient characterization in fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, "Study of hydrogen diffusion in boron/germanium codoped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1933-1941 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica," Phys. Rev. B 64, 144-201 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser-induced index changes in optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 275-289 (2000).

1999 (1)

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV post-exposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche, "The photorefractive Bragg gratings in the fibers for telecommunications," J. Phys. III 6, 1595-1624 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J.Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).

W. H. Loh, M. J. Cole, M. N. Zervas, S. Barcelos, R. I. Laming, "Complex grating structures with uniform phase masks based on the moving fiber–scanning beam technique," Opt. Lett. 20, 2051-2053 (1995).

1994 (2)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, "Amplification of fibre Bragg grating reflectivity by post-writing exposure with a 193 nm ArF laser," Electron. Lett. 30, 1133-1134 (1994).

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, "Effective index drift from molecular hydrogen diffusion in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and its effect on Bragg grating fabrication," Electron. Lett. 30, 442-444 (1994).

1993 (2)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, "Growth of Bragg gratings produced by continuous-wave ultraviolet light in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1484-1486 (1993).

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

1991 (1)

P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: Prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).

1987 (1)

J. Stone, "Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 712-733 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (4)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W. A. Reed, "High pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993).

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, "Effective index drift from molecular hydrogen diffusion in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and its effect on Bragg grating fabrication," Electron. Lett. 30, 442-444 (1994).

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, R. Giedl, K. C. Byron, "Amplification of fibre Bragg grating reflectivity by post-writing exposure with a 193 nm ArF laser," Electron. Lett. 30, 1133-1134 (1994).

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant, M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 loaded telecommunication fibre during CW UV post-exposure," Electron. Lett. 35, 329-331 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

P. L. Swart, A. A. Chtcherbakov, "Study of hydrogen diffusion in boron/germanium codoped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1933-1941 (2002).

J. A. Besley, L. Reekie, C. Weeks, T. Wang, C. Murphy, "Grating writing model for materials with nonlinear photosensitive response," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2421-2428 (2003).

G. A. Miller, C. G. Askins, E. J. Friebele, "Modified ${\rm F}$-matrix calculation of Bragg grating spectra and its use with a novel nonlinear index growth law," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2416- (2006).

G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, R. Slavík, "Modeling and experimental demonstration of ultracompact multiwavelength distributed Fabry-Pérot fiber lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 44 (2005).

J. Stone, "Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 712-733 (1987).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

B. Poumellec, M. Douay, J. C. Krupa, J. Garapon, P. Niay, "Comparison of UV optical absorption and UV excited luminescence behaviours in Ge doped silica under H2 loading or CW UV laser irradiation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 319-334 (2003).

P. Tandon, "Chemical annealing of oxygen hole centers in bulk glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 336, 212-217 (2004).

J. Phys. III (1)

B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche, "The photorefractive Bragg gratings in the fibers for telecommunications," J. Phys. III 6, 1595-1624 (1996).

J.Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J.Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: Prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser-induced index changes in optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 275-289 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica," Phys. Rev. B 64, 144-201 (2001).

Other (4)

G. Brochu, S. LaRochelle, "Modeling of the nonlinear photosensitivity response of hydrogen-loaded germanium-doped optical fiber in the presence of hydrogen diffusion and depletion," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, (Optical Society of America) (2007).

S. H. Moffat, S. J. Mihailov, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, D. Grobnic, "Influence of fringeless UV post-exposure on index modulation amplitude in fiber Bragg gratings," Proc. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, (Optical Society of America) (1999).

P. J. Lemaire, W. A. Vengsarkar, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Thermal enhancement of UV photosensitivity in H2-loaded optical fibers," Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America) (1995).

J. N. Reddy, An Introduction to the Finite Element Method (McGraw-Hill, 1993).

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