Abstract

A novel phase-sensitive and polarization-sensitive scheme to implement an optical low-coherence interferometry (OLCI) system is presented. With respect to conventional phase-sensitive OLCI, in our system the interference fringes of the coherent light used to recover phase information are conveniently detected by the same photodetector acquiring the low-coherence signal. This strategy guarantees the intrinsic synchronization of the two signals at any acquisition speed, makes measurements more robust against long-term fluctuations in the experimental setup, and reduces the measurement time without affecting phase accuracy. The residual phase error after the phase recovery procedure is less than 0.01 rad, to the authors' knowledge one of the best results reported so far for OLCI measurements. Polarization sensitivity is achieved in the same setup by means of polarization selective retarders (PSRs) employed to couple light into and out of the device under test. This scheme enables to retrieve the time and frequency domain response of an optical device for both the polarization states from a single data acquisition. The presented technique is extremely versatile; it can be implemented by using either fiber or free space optics and applied to the characterization of generic optical devices. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by reporting the measurement of the amplitude and phase response of integrated optical devices based on ring resonators.

© 2009 IEEE

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2008 (3)

2007 (2)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, "Direct observation of subluminal and superluminal velocity swinging in coupled mode optical propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).

P. Hamel, Y. Jaouën, R. Gabet, S. Ramachandran, "Optical low-coherence reflectometry for complete chromatic dispersion characterization of few-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1029-1031 (2007).

2006 (2)

D. Coric, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, "Distributed measurements of fiber birefringence and diametric load using optical low-coherence reflectometry and fiber gratings," Opt. Express 14, 11804-11813 (2006).

A. F. Obaton, C. Palavicini, Y. Jaouenjaouen, E. Kerrinckx, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lievrelievre, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 1696-1703 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

Y. Gottesman, E. V. K. Rao, D. G. Rabus, "New methodology to evaluate the performance of ring resonators using optical low-coherence reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1566-1572 (2004).

M. Kohtoku, T. Hirono, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, Y. Yoshikuni, "Control of higher order leaky modes in deep-ridge waveguides and application to low-crosstalk arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 499-508 (2004).

K. Takada, S. Satoh, "Measurement of slowly varying component in phase error distribution of a large-channel-spacing arrayed-waveguide grating," Electron. Lett. 40, 1486-1487 (2004).

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (4)

K. Takada, K. Okamoto, "Spectral width requirement for measuring return loss of arrayed waveguide gratings by using optical low coherence reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 35, 1734-1736 (1999).

S. Dyer, K. Rochford, A. Rose, "Fast and accurate low-coherence interferometric measurements of fiber Bragg grating dispersion and reflectance," Opt. Express 5, 262-266 (1999).

E. I. Petermann, J. Skaar, B. E. Sahlgren, R. A. H. Stubbe, A. T. Friberg, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by use of optical coherence-domain reflectometry," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2371-2378 (1999).

S. Mechels, K. Takada, K. Okamoto, "Optical low-coherence reflectometer for measuring WDM components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857-859 (1999).

1998 (1)

U. Wiedmann, P. Gallion, D. Guang-Hua, "A generalized approach to optical low-coherence reflectometry including spectral filtering effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1343-1347 (1998).

1996 (1)

K. Takada, H. Yamada, Y. Inoue, "Optical low coherence method for characterizing silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1677-1689 (1996).

1994 (1)

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, "Combined temperature and strain measurement with a dispersive optical fiber Fourier transform spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 24, 2167-2169 (1994).

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Novak, R. P. Salathe, W. Hodel, P. Beaud, "Submillimeter optical reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1225-1233 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Takada, K. Okamoto, "Spectral width requirement for measuring return loss of arrayed waveguide gratings by using optical low coherence reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 35, 1734-1736 (1999).

K. Takada, S. Satoh, "Measurement of slowly varying component in phase error distribution of a large-channel-spacing arrayed-waveguide grating," Electron. Lett. 40, 1486-1487 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Mechels, K. Takada, K. Okamoto, "Optical low-coherence reflectometer for measuring WDM components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 857-859 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. F. Obaton, C. Palavicini, Y. Jaouenjaouen, E. Kerrinckx, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lievrelievre, "Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55, 1696-1703 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

M. Kohtoku, T. Hirono, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, Y. Yoshikuni, "Control of higher order leaky modes in deep-ridge waveguides and application to low-crosstalk arrayed waveguide gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 499-508 (2004).

Y. Gottesman, E. V. K. Rao, D. G. Rabus, "New methodology to evaluate the performance of ring resonators using optical low-coherence reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1566-1572 (2004).

K. Takada, H. Yamada, Y. Inoue, "Optical low coherence method for characterizing silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1677-1689 (1996).

H. H. Gilgen, R. P. Novak, R. P. Salathe, W. Hodel, P. Beaud, "Submillimeter optical reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1225-1233 (1989).

U. Wiedmann, P. Gallion, D. Guang-Hua, "A generalized approach to optical low-coherence reflectometry including spectral filtering effects," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1343-1347 (1998).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, "Direct observation of subluminal and superluminal velocity swinging in coupled mode optical propagation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 173902 (2007).

Other (6)

F. Morichetti, R. Costa, G. Cusmai, A. Cabas, M. Feré, M. C. Ubaldi, A. Melloni, M. Martinelli, "Integrated optical receiver for RZ-DQPSK transmission systems," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. Los AngelesCA (2004).

P. Hamel, Y. Jaouen, R. Gabet, S. Combrie, N. V. Q. Tran, E. Weidner, A. De Rossi, A. Talneau, "Investigation of group delay and disorder in a photonic crystal waveguide using low-coherence reflectometry," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics BaltimoreMD (2007).

F. Morichetti, F. Persia, A. Melloni, "Characterization of ring-resonator by optical low-coherence interferometry," Proc. 12th Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (2005) pp. 141-144.

A. Melloni, C. Canavesi, F. Persia, Phase-Sensitive Low-Coherence Interferometry Apparatus Patent WO2008035389 (2008).

S. Ring, D. Menashe, U. Levy, S. Steinblatt, Y. Danziger, M. Tur, "Characterization of mode coupling in few-mode fibers using optical low-coherence reflectometry," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. San DiegoCA (2008).

A. Wax, "Real-time angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry for detecting pre-cancerous cells," Frontiers in Optics (2004).

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