Abstract

We investigated methods for improvement of continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) output power by laser diode (LD) pumping in noncollinear phase-matched difference frequency generation (DFG). The effects of interaction length and beam spot size of input lasers (near-IR) in GaP crystals were studied. The THz wave power dependence on various sizes of GaP crystals was investigated and it was observed that an output power of 4 nW was obtained with a 20 mm long GaP crystal at 1.5 THz. Also, the THz wave absorption coefficient was dominant for longer GaP crystals at high frequencies (above 2.5 THz). The THz wave power dependence on beam spot size (1.2 mm–300 $\mu{\rm m}$) of near-IR lasers at 1.62 THz was studied, and an improvement of THz wave power being seen with a 500 $\mu{\rm m}$ beam spot size, while the beam divergence effect was dominant for beam spot sizes below 500 $\mu{\rm m}$.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Nishizawa, "History and characteristics of semiconductor laser," Denshi Kagaku 14, 17-31 (1963).
  2. J. Nishizawa, "Esaki diode and long-wavelength laser," Denshi Gijutu 7, 101-106 (1965).
  3. J. Nishizawa, Semiconductor Maser Japan Patent 273217 (1957).
  4. J. Nishizawa, K. Suto, "Semiconductor Raman laser," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2429-2431 (1980).
  5. K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Low threshold semiconductor Raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1251-1254 (1983).
  6. T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Tunable terahertz wave generation in the 3- to 7-THz region from GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 237-239 (2003).
  7. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
  8. C. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, "Point source terahertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480-1482 (1988).
  9. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, "Optically steerable photoconducting antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, (1990).
  10. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electrooptic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
  11. N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, X. Jingzhou, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, X.-C. Zhang, "Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous terahertz imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S293-S299 (2005).
  12. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, S. Czasch, "Continuous-wave all optoelectronic terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 3003-3005 (2002).
  13. R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "THz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
  14. J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S. Darvish, J. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, "High power $\lambda \sim 9.5~\mu{\rm m}$ quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091113-091113 (2006).
  15. K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. Di Natale, T. M. Lyszczarz, "Terahertz photomixing with diode lasers in low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, (1995).
  16. T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1461 (2001).
  17. Y. Sasaki, H. Yokoyama, H. Ito, "Surface-emitted continuous-wave terahertz radiation using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 712-713 (2005).
  18. C. Baker, I. Gregory, M. Evans, W. Tribe, E. Linfield, M. Missous, "All optoelectronic terahertz system using low-temperature-grown InGaAs photo mixers," Opt. Express 13, 9639-9639 (2005).
  19. M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, I. C. Mayorga, A. Malcoci, M. Mikulics, "Generation of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using two-mode titanium sapphire laser containing an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot etalon," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103108.1-4 (2005).
  20. J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).
  21. T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Frequency tunable THz wave generation via excitation of phonon-polaritons in GaP," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 953-957 (2003).
  22. T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, K. Saito, "Frequency tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).
  23. Y. R. Shen, Nonlinear Infrared Generation (Springer, 1977).
  24. T. Tanabe, S. Ragam, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Two-directional CW THz wave generation system by pumping with a single fiber amplifier of near IR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 260-260 (2009).
  25. K. saito, T. Tanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, "Terahertz wave absorption in GaP crystals with different carrier densities," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 597-600 (2008).

2009 (1)

T. Tanabe, S. Ragam, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Two-directional CW THz wave generation system by pumping with a single fiber amplifier of near IR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 260-260 (2009).

2008 (1)

K. saito, T. Tanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, "Terahertz wave absorption in GaP crystals with different carrier densities," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 597-600 (2008).

2006 (2)

J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S. Darvish, J. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, "High power $\lambda \sim 9.5~\mu{\rm m}$ quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091113-091113 (2006).

2005 (4)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, X. Jingzhou, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, X.-C. Zhang, "Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous terahertz imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S293-S299 (2005).

Y. Sasaki, H. Yokoyama, H. Ito, "Surface-emitted continuous-wave terahertz radiation using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 712-713 (2005).

C. Baker, I. Gregory, M. Evans, W. Tribe, E. Linfield, M. Missous, "All optoelectronic terahertz system using low-temperature-grown InGaAs photo mixers," Opt. Express 13, 9639-9639 (2005).

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, I. C. Mayorga, A. Malcoci, M. Mikulics, "Generation of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using two-mode titanium sapphire laser containing an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot etalon," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103108.1-4 (2005).

2003 (3)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Tunable terahertz wave generation in the 3- to 7-THz region from GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 237-239 (2003).

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Frequency tunable THz wave generation via excitation of phonon-polaritons in GaP," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 953-957 (2003).

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, K. Saito, "Frequency tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, S. Czasch, "Continuous-wave all optoelectronic terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 3003-3005 (2002).

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "THz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1461 (2001).

1995 (1)

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. Di Natale, T. M. Lyszczarz, "Terahertz photomixing with diode lasers in low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, (1995).

1992 (1)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electrooptic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

1990 (1)

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, "Optically steerable photoconducting antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, (1990).

1988 (1)

C. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, "Point source terahertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480-1482 (1988).

1984 (1)

H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).

1983 (1)

K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Low threshold semiconductor Raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1251-1254 (1983).

1980 (1)

J. Nishizawa, K. Suto, "Semiconductor Raman laser," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2429-2431 (1980).

1965 (1)

J. Nishizawa, "Esaki diode and long-wavelength laser," Denshi Gijutu 7, 101-106 (1965).

1963 (1)

J. Nishizawa, "History and characteristics of semiconductor laser," Denshi Kagaku 14, 17-31 (1963).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Tunable terahertz wave generation in the 3- to 7-THz region from GaP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 237-239 (2003).

H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).

C. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, "Point source terahertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480-1482 (1988).

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, "Optically steerable photoconducting antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, (1990).

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electrooptic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S. Darvish, J. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, "High power $\lambda \sim 9.5~\mu{\rm m}$ quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091113-091113 (2006).

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. Di Natale, T. M. Lyszczarz, "Terahertz photomixing with diode lasers in low-temperature grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, (1995).

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, S. Czasch, "Continuous-wave all optoelectronic terahertz imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 3003-3005 (2002).

Denshi Gijutu (1)

J. Nishizawa, "Esaki diode and long-wavelength laser," Denshi Gijutu 7, 101-106 (1965).

Denshi Kagaku (1)

J. Nishizawa, "History and characteristics of semiconductor laser," Denshi Kagaku 14, 17-31 (1963).

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1461 (2001).

Y. Sasaki, H. Yokoyama, H. Ito, "Surface-emitted continuous-wave terahertz radiation using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 712-713 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Low threshold semiconductor Raman laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1251-1254 (1983).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

T. Tanabe, S. Ragam, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, "Two-directional CW THz wave generation system by pumping with a single fiber amplifier of near IR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 260-260 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, K. Saito, "Frequency tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, I. C. Mayorga, A. Malcoci, M. Mikulics, "Generation of continuous-wave terahertz radiation using two-mode titanium sapphire laser containing an intra-cavity Fabry-Perot etalon," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 103108.1-4 (2005).

J. Nishizawa, K. Suto, "Semiconductor Raman laser," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2429-2431 (1980).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

K. saito, T. Tanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, "Terahertz wave absorption in GaP crystals with different carrier densities," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69, 597-600 (2008).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, K. Saito, T. Kimura, "Frequency tunable THz wave generation via excitation of phonon-polaritons in GaP," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 953-957 (2003).

Nature (1)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "THz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

N. Karpowicz, H. Zhong, X. Jingzhou, K.-I. Lin, J.-S. Hwang, X.-C. Zhang, "Comparison between pulsed terahertz time-domain imaging and continuous terahertz imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S293-S299 (2005).

Other (2)

J. Nishizawa, Semiconductor Maser Japan Patent 273217 (1957).

Y. R. Shen, Nonlinear Infrared Generation (Springer, 1977).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.