Abstract

Step-index (SI) fiber designs are commonly used in achieving large mode area (LMA) and single-mode (SM) operation in fiber lasers. These fibers can either be intrinsically single-moded fibers or few-moded fibers, which can be forced into SM operation through bending. In this paper we evaluate the limitation of the effective area for SM operation by taking into account the effects of practical constraints such as fiber bending loss, laser performance, and fiber mechanical reliability on these LMA fiber designs. It is shown that the effective area of these fibers cannot be arbitrarily scaled up with the size of the fiber core. We also use the modeling result to provide estimated upper limits to the core diameters and corresponding effective areas for conventional SI fiber designs taking into account fiber parameters that are achievable nowadays.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, R. V. Penty, "158-$\mu$J pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 378-380 (1997).
  2. Z. Jiang, J. R. Marciante, "Mode-area scaling of helical-core, dual-clad fiber lasers and amplifiers using an improved bend-loss model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2051-2058 (2006).
  3. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
  4. J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, D. J. Richardson, "Comparative study of large-mode holey and conventional fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 1045-1047 (2001).
  5. J. M. Fini, "Bend-resistant design of conventional and microstructure fibers with very large mode area," Opt. Exp. 14, 69-81 (2006).
  6. Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, P. W. Turner, "Power scaling of single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 546-551 (2007).
  7. D. P. Machewirth, Q. Wang, B. Samson, K. Tankala, M. O'Connor, M. Alam, "Current developments in high power, monolithic, polarization maintaining fiber amplifiers for coherent beam combining applications," Proc. SPIE 6453, 64531F-1-64531F-7 (2007).
  8. Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Exp. 12, 6088-6092 (2004).
  9. T. Schreiber, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. Hansen, J. Broeng, A. Tünnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Exp. 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
  10. M. Heiblum, J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 75-83 (1975).
  11. M. J. Li, X. Chen, D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, J. Wang, W. A. Wood, L. A. Zenteno, "High bandwidth single polarization fiber with elliptical central air hole," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3454-3460 (2005).
  12. X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Koh, A. Artuso, D. A. Nolan, "Effects of bending on the performance of hole-assisted single polarization fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10629-10636 (2007).
  13. A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 559-566 (2007).
  14. J. L. Miller, Ed. Friedman, Optical Communications Rules of Thumb (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2002) pp. 81.
  15. G. S. Glaesemann, M. J. Winningham, D. A. Clark, J. Coon, S. E. DeMartino, S. L. Logunov, C.-K. Chien, "Mechanical failure of bent optical fiber subjected to high power," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 89, 50-56 (2006).

2007 (4)

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, P. W. Turner, "Power scaling of single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 546-551 (2007).

D. P. Machewirth, Q. Wang, B. Samson, K. Tankala, M. O'Connor, M. Alam, "Current developments in high power, monolithic, polarization maintaining fiber amplifiers for coherent beam combining applications," Proc. SPIE 6453, 64531F-1-64531F-7 (2007).

X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Koh, A. Artuso, D. A. Nolan, "Effects of bending on the performance of hole-assisted single polarization fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10629-10636 (2007).

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 559-566 (2007).

2006 (3)

G. S. Glaesemann, M. J. Winningham, D. A. Clark, J. Coon, S. E. DeMartino, S. L. Logunov, C.-K. Chien, "Mechanical failure of bent optical fiber subjected to high power," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 89, 50-56 (2006).

J. M. Fini, "Bend-resistant design of conventional and microstructure fibers with very large mode area," Opt. Exp. 14, 69-81 (2006).

Z. Jiang, J. R. Marciante, "Mode-area scaling of helical-core, dual-clad fiber lasers and amplifiers using an improved bend-loss model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2051-2058 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. J. Li, X. Chen, D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, J. Wang, W. A. Wood, L. A. Zenteno, "High bandwidth single polarization fiber with elliptical central air hole," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3454-3460 (2005).

T. Schreiber, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. Hansen, J. Broeng, A. Tünnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Exp. 13, 7621-7630 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Exp. 12, 6088-6092 (2004).

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, R. V. Penty, "158-$\mu$J pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 378-380 (1997).

1975 (1)

M. Heiblum, J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 75-83 (1975).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Heiblum, J. H. Harris, "Analysis of curved optical waveguides by conformal transformation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 75-83 (1975).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, P. W. Turner, "Power scaling of single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier sources up to 500 W," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 546-551 (2007).

IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 559-566 (2007).

J. Am. Ceramic Soc. (1)

G. S. Glaesemann, M. J. Winningham, D. A. Clark, J. Coon, S. E. DeMartino, S. L. Logunov, C.-K. Chien, "Mechanical failure of bent optical fiber subjected to high power," J. Am. Ceramic Soc. 89, 50-56 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. J. Li, X. Chen, D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, J. Wang, W. A. Wood, L. A. Zenteno, "High bandwidth single polarization fiber with elliptical central air hole," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3454-3460 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

Z. Jiang, J. R. Marciante, "Mode-area scaling of helical-core, dual-clad fiber lasers and amplifiers using an improved bend-loss model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 23, 2051-2058 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (4)

J. M. Fini, "Bend-resistant design of conventional and microstructure fibers with very large mode area," Opt. Exp. 14, 69-81 (2006).

X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Koh, A. Artuso, D. A. Nolan, "Effects of bending on the performance of hole-assisted single polarization fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10629-10636 (2007).

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Exp. 12, 6088-6092 (2004).

T. Schreiber, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. Hansen, J. Broeng, A. Tünnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Exp. 13, 7621-7630 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (3)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, D. J. Richardson, "Comparative study of large-mode holey and conventional fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 1045-1047 (2001).

D. Taverner, D. J. Richardson, L. Dong, J. E. Caplen, K. Williams, R. V. Penty, "158-$\mu$J pulses from a single-transverse-mode, large-mode-area erbium-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 378-380 (1997).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. P. Machewirth, Q. Wang, B. Samson, K. Tankala, M. O'Connor, M. Alam, "Current developments in high power, monolithic, polarization maintaining fiber amplifiers for coherent beam combining applications," Proc. SPIE 6453, 64531F-1-64531F-7 (2007).

Other (1)

J. L. Miller, Ed. Friedman, Optical Communications Rules of Thumb (McGraw-Hill Professional, 2002) pp. 81.

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