Abstract

The intensity-dependent nonlinear coefficient $n_{2}/A_{{\rm eff}}$ of a short Er-doped, amplifying fiber is determined using a method thoroughly studied for measurements of passive fibers. Measurement uncertainty of 3.0% is achieved using modified continuous-wave self-phase modulation method. In addition to metrological aspects, we also discuss limitations and conditions imposed by the Er-doped fiber as compared with the measurement of a pure silica core fiber. The used measurement method is advantageous as compared with other techniques due to its reliability and ease of implementation.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. Y. Namihira, "ITU-T round robin measurement for nonlinear coefficient $({\rm n}_2/{\rm A}_{\rm eff})$ of various single mode optical fibers," Tech. Dig. Symp. Opt. Fiber Meas. (2004) pp. 33-36.
  2. F. A. Oguama, A. M. Johnson, W. A. Reed, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of telecommunication fibers as a function of Er, Al, and Ge doping profiles by using the photorefractive beam-coupling technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1600-1604 (2005).
  3. A. Lamminpaa, T. Hieta, J. Envall, E. Ikonen, "Reliable determination of optical fiber nonlinearity using dispersion simulatuions and improved power measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 527-532 (2006).
  4. Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Tsuda, S. P. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, R. G. Smart, "Four-wave mixing in EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 35, 2130-2131 (1999).
  5. K. Song, M. Premaratne, "Effects of SPM, XPM, and four-wave-mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiber-optic signal transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1630-1632 (2000).
  6. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "New approach to the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of short ($<25$ m) lengths of silica and erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1796-1798 (2003).
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  11. A. A. M. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, J. Aspell, "Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 714-717 (1990).
  12. J. Envall, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, "Measurement of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).
  13. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "Pump-induced nonlinear refractive index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: Theory and experiment," Opt. Lett 30, 1261-1263 (2005).
  14. M. Bolstyansky, "Spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1032-1038 (2003).

2006

A. Lamminpaa, T. Hieta, J. Envall, E. Ikonen, "Reliable determination of optical fiber nonlinearity using dispersion simulatuions and improved power measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 527-532 (2006).

2005

F. A. Oguama, A. M. Johnson, W. A. Reed, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of telecommunication fibers as a function of Er, Al, and Ge doping profiles by using the photorefractive beam-coupling technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1600-1604 (2005).

A. Lamminpää, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, H. Ludvigsen, "Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 278-285 (2005).

H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "Pump-induced nonlinear refractive index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: Theory and experiment," Opt. Lett 30, 1261-1263 (2005).

2004

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, "Measurement of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).

2003

2000

K. Song, M. Premaratne, "Effects of SPM, XPM, and four-wave-mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiber-optic signal transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1630-1632 (2000).

1999

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Tsuda, S. P. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, R. G. Smart, "Four-wave mixing in EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 35, 2130-2131 (1999).

G. J. Pendock, S. Y. Park, A. K. Srivastava, S. Radic, J. W. Sulhoff, C. L. Wolf, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, "The contribution to cross-phase modulation in L-band WDM systems from erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1578-1580 (1999).

1996

1990

A. A. M. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, J. Aspell, "Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 714-717 (1990).

Electron. Lett.

Y. Liu, S. Burtsev, S. Tsuda, S. P. Hegarty, R. S. Mozdy, M. Hempstead, G. G. Luther, R. G. Smart, "Four-wave mixing in EDFAs," Electron. Lett. 35, 2130-2131 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Song, M. Premaratne, "Effects of SPM, XPM, and four-wave-mixing in L-band EDFAs on fiber-optic signal transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1630-1632 (2000).

G. J. Pendock, S. Y. Park, A. K. Srivastava, S. Radic, J. W. Sulhoff, C. L. Wolf, K. Kantor, Y. Sun, "The contribution to cross-phase modulation in L-band WDM systems from erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1578-1580 (1999).

A. A. M. Saleh, R. M. Jopson, J. D. Evankow, J. Aspell, "Modeling of gain in erbium-doped fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 714-717 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Bolstyansky, "Spectral hole burning in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1032-1038 (2003).

A. Lamminpaa, T. Hieta, J. Envall, E. Ikonen, "Reliable determination of optical fiber nonlinearity using dispersion simulatuions and improved power measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 527-532 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

F. A. Oguama, A. M. Johnson, W. A. Reed, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of telecommunication fibers as a function of Er, Al, and Ge doping profiles by using the photorefractive beam-coupling technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 1600-1604 (2005).

Metrologia

J. Envall, P. Kärhä, E. Ikonen, "Measurement of fibre optic power using photodiodes with and without integrating sphere," Metrologia 41, 353-358 (2004).

Opt. Fiber Technol.

A. Lamminpää, T. Niemi, E. Ikonen, P. Marttila, H. Ludvigsen, "Effects of dispersion on nonlinearity measurement of optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 11, 278-285 (2005).

Opt. Lett

H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, S. Trivedi, "Pump-induced nonlinear refractive index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: Theory and experiment," Opt. Lett 30, 1261-1263 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

Y. Namihira, "ITU-T round robin measurement for nonlinear coefficient $({\rm n}_2/{\rm A}_{\rm eff})$ of various single mode optical fibers," Tech. Dig. Symp. Opt. Fiber Meas. (2004) pp. 33-36.

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