Abstract

We propose to introduce a densely aligned 2$\,\times\,$4 channel polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores for board-level optical interconnection, which is fabricated using the preform method. It is verified that this novel waveguide has sufficiently low loss (0.028 dB/cm at 850 nm and 0.061 dB/cm at 980 nm) and high bandwidth, due to the specific characteristic of the graded-index profile. This paper discusses insertion loss sensitivity to the displacement of the launched beam, various inter-channel crosstalk properties, and inter-channel skew, taking into account the real implementation of waveguides on printed circuit boards, especially for high-speed optical interconnects.

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2007 (5)

Y. Takeyoshi, T. Ishigure, "Low inter-channel crosstalk property of 4-channel polymer parallel optical waveguide with circular GI cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1430-1432 (2007).

N. Hendrickx, J. V. Erps, G. V. Steenberge, H. Thienpont, P. V. Daele, "Tolerance analysis for multilayer optical interconnections integrated on a printed circuit board," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2395-2401 (2007).

Y. Takeyoshi, T. Ishigure, "Multichannel parallel polymer waveguide with circular W-shaped index profile cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1795-1797 (2007).

X. Wang, L. Wang, W. Jiang, R. T. Chen, "Hard-molded 51 cm-long waveguide array with a 150 GHz bandwidth for board-level optical interconnects," Opt. Lett. 32, 677-679 (2007).

T. Ishigure, Y. Takeyoshi, "Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 5843-5850 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, M. Schmatz, "Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps," Proc. SPIE 6124, (2006) 61240J.

Y. Tatara, H. Hosokawa, "Fabrication of replicated polymer optical waveguide," Proc. OFC 109-110 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Lash, D. M. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 755-776 (2005).

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, Y. Koike, "Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4155-4168 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H.-M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

K. B. Yoon, C.-G. Choi, S.-P. Han, "Fabrication of multimode polymeric waveguides by hot embossing lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3450-3451 (2004).

2002 (2)

M.-H. Lee, X. Li, J. Y. Kim, J. Kang, S. Paek, J. J. Kim, "Facile fabrication of polymer waveguide by using photosensitive polyimides," Mol. Crystals Liquid Crystals 377, 7-12 (2002).

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449-1456 (2002).

1994 (2)

D. Dobbelaere, P. Israel, P. V. Daele, P. Baets, R. Mohlmann, G. R. Horsthuis, "Fabrication of vertical light couplers in polymeric waveguides by embossing," Proc. LEOE 178-179 (1994).

T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, Y. Koike, "Graded-index polymer optical fiber for high speed data communication," Appl. Opt. 33, 4261-4266 (1994).

1988 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Lash, D. M. Kuchta, M. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Develop. 49, 755-776 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Takeyoshi, T. Ishigure, "Low inter-channel crosstalk property of 4-channel polymer parallel optical waveguide with circular GI cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1430-1432 (2007).

Y. Takeyoshi, T. Ishigure, "Multichannel parallel polymer waveguide with circular W-shaped index profile cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1795-1797 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1449-1456 (2002).

T. Ishigure, K. Ohdoko, Y. Ishiyama, Y. Koike, "Mode coupling control and new index profile of GI POF for restricted launch condition in very short-reach networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4155-4168 (2005).

N. Hendrickx, J. V. Erps, G. V. Steenberge, H. Thienpont, P. V. Daele, "Tolerance analysis for multilayer optical interconnections integrated on a printed circuit board," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2395-2401 (2007).

D. M. Kuchta, Y. H. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, J. Jewell, L. A. Graham, K. Schrödinger, A. Schild, H.-M. Rein, "120-Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel-optical interconnect and custom 120-Gb/s testing station," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2200-2212 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Yoon, C.-G. Choi, S.-P. Han, "Fabrication of multimode polymeric waveguides by hot embossing lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3450-3451 (2004).

Mol. Crystals Liquid Crystals (1)

M.-H. Lee, X. Li, J. Y. Kim, J. Kang, S. Paek, J. J. Kim, "Facile fabrication of polymer waveguide by using photosensitive polyimides," Mol. Crystals Liquid Crystals 377, 7-12 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. LEOE (1)

D. Dobbelaere, P. Israel, P. V. Daele, P. Baets, R. Mohlmann, G. R. Horsthuis, "Fabrication of vertical light couplers in polymeric waveguides by embossing," Proc. LEOE 178-179 (1994).

Proc. OFC (1)

Y. Tatara, H. Hosokawa, "Fabrication of replicated polymer optical waveguide," Proc. OFC 109-110 (2006).

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Berger, B. J. Offrein, M. Schmatz, "Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps," Proc. SPIE 6124, (2006) 61240J.

Other (3)

R. Dangel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, G. L. Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymer waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," Proc. IEEE-LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2004) pp. 29-30.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, R. A. Pitwon, K. Hopkins, D. Milward, "Optical 8-channel, 10 Gb/s MT pluggable connector alignment technology for precision coupling of laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays for optical board-to-board interconnects," Proc. 2008 ECTC (2008) pp. 1769-1775.

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements (Academic, 1981).

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