Abstract

Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) can cause frequency-selective fading in direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) systems. In this paper, we examine the effects of this fading. We begin with an analysis of the frequency-selective fading caused by first-order PMD. We then estimate the impact of PMD in single-receiver DDO-OFDM using all-order simulations to generate outage probabilities as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalty. The performances of three single-receiver DDO-OFDM formats are compared and a new format that minimizes the frequency difference between the carrier and sideband is found to be more tolerant to PMD. We then introduce a DDO-OFM system that includes polarization diversity and carrier boost in the receiver. The effects of various configurations are simulated and the results suggest that a data rate of 42.7Gb/s can be achieved within an optical bandwidth of 40 GHz, and with negligible PMD penalties.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2553 (2006).
  2. F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
  3. T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).
  4. T. Foggi, G. Colavolpe, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Channel estimation algorithms for MLSD in optical communication systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1984-1986 (2006).
  5. O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).
  6. H. Bulow, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) paper OMG5.
  7. G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Multilevel optical systems with MLSD receivers insensitive to GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1263-1273 (2008).
  8. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
  9. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).
  10. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "10 $\times$ 121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1,000 km of SSMF," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper PDP2.
  11. Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper PDP7.
  12. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  13. A. J. Lowery, "Improving sensitivity and spectral efficiency in direct-detection optical OFDM systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMM4.
  14. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).
  15. C. Xie, "Polarization-mode-dispersion impairments and mitigation in ultra-high speed transmission," IEEE/LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2007) pp. 244-245.
  16. N. Cvijetic, L. Xu, T. Wang, "Adaptive PMD compensation using OFDM in long-haul 10 Gb/s DWDM systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) paper OTuA5.
  17. I. B. Djordjevic, "PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 3692-3701 (2007).
  18. M. Mayrock, H. Haunstein, "PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BerlinGermany (2007) paper Tu. 5.2.5.
  19. C. Xie, "PMD insensitive direct-detection optical OFDM systems using self-polarization diversity," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMM2.
  20. W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J. Y. Yang, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Experimental demonstration of a coherently modulated and directly detected optical OFDM system using an RF-tone insertion," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMU2.
  21. N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, D. Qian, "System outage probability due to PMD in high-speed optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2118-2127 (2008).
  22. H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2002) pp. 725-861.
  23. F. Bruyere, "Impact of first- and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-80 (1996).
  24. G. Biondini, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 310-312 (2002).
  25. O. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-51 (2000).
  26. A. J. Lowery, "Amplified-spontaneous noise limit of optical OFDM lightwave systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 860-865 (2008).

2008 (5)

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Multilevel optical systems with MLSD receivers insensitive to GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1263-1273 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, D. Qian, "System outage probability due to PMD in high-speed optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2118-2127 (2008).

A. J. Lowery, "Amplified-spontaneous noise limit of optical OFDM lightwave systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 860-865 (2008).

2007 (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, "PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 3692-3701 (2007).

2006 (5)

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2553 (2006).

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

T. Foggi, G. Colavolpe, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Channel estimation algorithms for MLSD in optical communication systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1984-1986 (2006).

2005 (1)

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

2004 (1)

F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 310-312 (2002).

2000 (1)

O. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-51 (2000).

1996 (1)

F. Bruyere, "Impact of first- and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-80 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

H.-M. Bae, J. B. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. R. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, S. Chopra, "An MLSE receiver for electronic dispersion compensation of OC-192 fiber links," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2541-2553 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Multilevel optical systems with MLSD receivers insensitive to GVD and PMD," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1263-1273 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, D. Qian, "System outage probability due to PMD in high-speed optical OFDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2118-2127 (2008).

O. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-51 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (3)

A. J. Lowery, "Amplified-spontaneous noise limit of optical OFDM lightwave systems," Opt. Exp. 16, 860-865 (2008).

I. B. Djordjevic, "PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 3692-3701 (2007).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

F. Bruyere, "Impact of first- and second-order PMD in optical digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-80 (1996).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Biondini, W. L. Kath, C. R. Menyuk, "Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 310-312 (2002).

T. Foggi, G. Colavolpe, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Channel estimation algorithms for MLSD in optical communication systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1984-1986 (2006).

Other (10)

H. Bulow, "Electronic dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) paper OMG5.

M. Mayrock, H. Haunstein, "PMD tolerant direct-detection optical OFDM system," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BerlinGermany (2007) paper Tu. 5.2.5.

C. Xie, "PMD insensitive direct-detection optical OFDM systems using self-polarization diversity," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMM2.

W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J. Y. Yang, K. M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Experimental demonstration of a coherently modulated and directly detected optical OFDM system using an RF-tone insertion," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMU2.

A. J. Lowery, "Improving sensitivity and spectral efficiency in direct-detection optical OFDM systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper OMM4.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "10 $\times$ 121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1,000 km of SSMF," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper PDP2.

Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) paper PDP7.

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2002) pp. 725-861.

C. Xie, "Polarization-mode-dispersion impairments and mitigation in ultra-high speed transmission," IEEE/LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2007) pp. 244-245.

N. Cvijetic, L. Xu, T. Wang, "Adaptive PMD compensation using OFDM in long-haul 10 Gb/s DWDM systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) paper OTuA5.

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