Abstract

As community concerns about global energy consumption grow, the power consumption of the Internet is becoming an issue of increasing importance. In this paper, we present a network-based model of power consumption in optical IP networks and use this model to estimate the energy consumption of the Internet. The model includes the core, metro and edge, access and video distribution networks, and takes into account energy consumption in switching and transmission equipment. We include a number of access technologies, including digital subscriber line with ADSL2+, fiber to the home using passive optical networks, fiber to the node combined with very high-speed digital subscriber line and point-to-point optical systems. In addition to estimating the power consumption of today's Internet, we make predictions of power consumption in a future higher capacity Internet using estimates of improvements in efficiency in coming generations of network equipment. We estimate that the Internet currently consumes about 0.4% of electricity consumption in broadband-enabled countries. While the energy efficiency of network equipment will improve, and savings can be made by employing optical bypass and multicast, the power consumption of the Internet could approach 1% of electricity consumption as access rates increase. The energy consumption per bit of data on the Internet is around 75 ${\bm \mu}$J at low access rates and decreases to around 2–4 ${\bm \mu}$J at an access rate of 100 Mb/s.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009

R. S. Tucker, R. Pathiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, "Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: A cost and energy perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 243-252 (2009).

2008

R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet switching: A reality check," Opt. Switching Netw. 5, 2-9 (2008).

2006

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic Internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

D. T. Neilson, "Photonics for switching and routing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 669-678 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

P. Chanclou, S. Gosselin, J. F. Palacios, V. L. Alvarez, E. Zouganeli, "Overview of the optical broadband access evolution: A joint article by operators in the 1ST network of excellence e-photon/one," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 29-35 (2006).

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

E. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

2005

A. Vukovic, "Data centers: Network power density challenges," ASHRAE J. 47, 55-59 (2005).

2004

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. D. George, "The next frontier for communications networks: Power management," Comput. Commun. 27, 1758-1770 (2004).

J. Koomey, H. Chong, W. Loh, B. Nordman, M. Blazek, "Network electricity use associated with wireless personal digital assistants," ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. 10, 131-137 (2004).

2003

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2476-2488 (2003).

1999

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

1989

S. S. Wagner, H. L. Lemberg, "Technology and system issues for the WDM-based fiber looparchitecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1759-1768 (1989).

ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst.

J. Koomey, H. Chong, W. Loh, B. Nordman, M. Blazek, "Network electricity use associated with wireless personal digital assistants," ASCE J. Infrastructure Syst. 10, 131-137 (2004).

ASHRAE J.

A. Vukovic, "Data centers: Network power density challenges," ASHRAE J. 47, 55-59 (2005).

Comput. Commun.

K. J. Christensen, C. Gunaratne, B. Nordman, A. D. George, "The next frontier for communications networks: Power management," Comput. Commun. 27, 1758-1770 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

P. Chanclou, S. Gosselin, J. F. Palacios, V. L. Alvarez, E. Zouganeli, "Overview of the optical broadband access evolution: A joint article by operators in the 1ST network of excellence e-photon/one," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 29-35 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

D. T. Neilson, "Photonics for switching and routing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 669-678 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. S. Tucker, R. Pathiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, "Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: A cost and energy perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 243-252 (2009).

S. S. Wagner, H. L. Lemberg, "Technology and system issues for the WDM-based fiber looparchitecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1759-1768 (1989).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic Internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

J. High Speed Netw.

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

R. Parthiban, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, "Waveband grooming and IP aggregation in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2476-2488 (2003).

E. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

Opt. Switching Netw.

R. S. Tucker, "Optical packet switching: A reality check," Opt. Switching Netw. 5, 2-9 (2008).

Other

M. Gupta, S. Singh, "Greening of the Internet," Proc. SIGCOMM'03: Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (2003) pp. 19-26.

Fujitsu Data Sheets http://www.fujitsu.com.

Tyco Telecomms http://www.tycotelecom.com.

N. Bergano, (2007) private communication.

M. Gupta, S. Grover, S. Singh, "A feasibility study for power management in LAN switches," Proc. Int. Conf. Netw. Protocols (ICNP) (2004) pp. 361-371.

NationMaster http://www.nationmaster.com.

Calient Data Sheets http://www.calient.net.

NEC Australia (2007) private communication.

P. V. Mieghem, Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).

G. Epps, "System power challenges," Proc. Cisco Routing Res. Symp. (2006).

Global IP Traffic Forecast and Methodology, 2006–2011 (2008) http://www.cisco.com.

M. Webb, “Smart 2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age,” LondonU.K. (2008).

J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption of the Internet," Proc. COIN/ACOFT (2007).

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck," Proc. Photon. Switching (2007) pp. 125-126.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in access networks," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (OFC)/(NFOEC) (2008).

K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. D. Doverspike, "IPTV challenges," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (OFC)/(NFOEC) (2008) pp. 1-33.

Alcatel-Lucent Data Sheets http://www.alcatel-lucent.com.

D-Link Data Sheets http://www.dlink.com.au.

Hitachi Data Sheets http://www.hitachi.com.

Wave7 Data Sheets http://www.wave7optics.com.

NEC Australia Data Sheets http://www.nec.com.au.

NEC Japan Data Sheets http://www.nec.co.jp.

Cisco Data Sheets http://www.cisco.com.

TC Commun. Data Sheets http://www.tccomm.com.

Juniper Data Sheets http://www.juniper.net.

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