Abstract

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has a high peak-to-average ratio (PAR), which can result in low optical power efficiency when modulated through a Mach–Zehnder (MZ) modulator. In addition, the nonlinear characteristic of the MZ can cause significant distortion on the OFDM signal, leading to in-band intermodulation products between subcarriers. We show that a quadrature MZ with digital predistortion and hard clipping is able to overcome the previous impairments. We consider quantization noise and compute the minimum number of bits required in the digital-to-analog converter (D/A). Finally, we discuss a dual-drive MZ as a simpler alternative for the OFDM modulator, but our results show that it requires a higher oversampling ratio to achieve the same performance as the quadrature MZ.

© 2009 IEEE

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References

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  1. S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  2. D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optimized dispersion compensation using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2889-2898 (2008).
  3. G. L. Stüber, Principles of Mobile Communication (Kluwer Academic, 2001).
  4. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).
  5. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, X. Yi, R. Evans, "Optimum design for RF-to-Optical up-converter in coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 483-485 (2007).
  6. Y. Tang, K. Ho, W. Shieh, "Coherent optical OFDM transmitter design employing predistortion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 954-956 (2008).
  7. B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 258-268 (2003).
  8. S. Sezginer, H. Sari, "OFDM peak power reduction with simple amplitude predistortion," IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 65-67 (2006).
  9. C. Ciochina, F. Buda, H. Sari, "An analysis of OFDM peak power reduction techniques for WiMAX systems," Proc. IEEE ICC'06 (2006) pp. 4676-4681.
  10. J. Tellado, Multicarrier Modulation with Low PAR: Applications to DSL and Wireless (Kluwer Academic, 2000).
  11. A. J. Lowery, S. Wang, M. Premaratne, "Calculation of power limit due to fiber nonlinearity in optical OFDM systems," Opt. Express 15, 13282-13287 (2007).
  12. K. P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).
  13. J. Armstrong, "Peak-to-average power reduction for OFDM by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering," Electron. Lett. 38, 246-247 (2002).
  14. X. Li, J. L. J. Cimini, "Effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 3, (1997).
  15. 40 Gbps LiNbO$_{3}$ External Modu (2004) http://www.fujitsu.com/global/services/telecom/optcompo/lineup/40gln/.

2008 (3)

S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optimized dispersion compensation using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2889-2898 (2008).

Y. Tang, K. Ho, W. Shieh, "Coherent optical OFDM transmitter design employing predistortion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 954-956 (2008).

2007 (2)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, X. Yi, R. Evans, "Optimum design for RF-to-Optical up-converter in coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 483-485 (2007).

A. J. Lowery, S. Wang, M. Premaratne, "Calculation of power limit due to fiber nonlinearity in optical OFDM systems," Opt. Express 15, 13282-13287 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Sezginer, H. Sari, "OFDM peak power reduction with simple amplitude predistortion," IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 65-67 (2006).

2003 (1)

B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 258-268 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Armstrong, "Peak-to-average power reduction for OFDM by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering," Electron. Lett. 38, 246-247 (2002).

1997 (1)

X. Li, J. L. J. Cimini, "Effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 3, (1997).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong, "Peak-to-average power reduction for OFDM by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering," Electron. Lett. 38, 246-247 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

S. Sezginer, H. Sari, "OFDM peak power reduction with simple amplitude predistortion," IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 65-67 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, X. Yi, R. Evans, "Optimum design for RF-to-Optical up-converter in coherent optical OFDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 483-485 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Tang, K. Ho, W. Shieh, "Coherent optical OFDM transmitter design employing predistortion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 954-956 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 49, 258-268 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

X. Li, J. L. J. Cimini, "Effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 3, (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optimized dispersion compensation using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2889-2898 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

A. J. Lowery, S. Wang, M. Premaratne, "Calculation of power limit due to fiber nonlinearity in optical OFDM systems," Opt. Express 15, 13282-13287 (2007).

Other (6)

K. P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

C. Ciochina, F. Buda, H. Sari, "An analysis of OFDM peak power reduction techniques for WiMAX systems," Proc. IEEE ICC'06 (2006) pp. 4676-4681.

J. Tellado, Multicarrier Modulation with Low PAR: Applications to DSL and Wireless (Kluwer Academic, 2000).

G. L. Stüber, Principles of Mobile Communication (Kluwer Academic, 2001).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstrations of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," Proc. OFC'07 (2007).

40 Gbps LiNbO$_{3}$ External Modu (2004) http://www.fujitsu.com/global/services/telecom/optcompo/lineup/40gln/.

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