Abstract

We present a comprehensive study of the strain and temperature-sensing characteristics of single-mode–multimode–single-mode (SMS) structures based on the modal interference of guided modes of graded index multimode fiber (MMF) section spliced in between two single-mode fibers. A detailed theoretical study of the structures in terms of the refractive index distribution, effect of dopant and their concentrations, and the variation of core diameter has been carried out. Our study shows that for the SMS structure with a ${\rm GeO}_{2}$-doped MMF there exists a critical wavelength on either side of which the spectrum shows opposite spectral shift with a change in temperature/strain, whereas for structures with a ${\rm P}_{2}{\rm O}_{5}$-doped MMF it shows monotonic red shift with increasing temperature/strain. It has been found that the critical wavelength shifts toward higher wavelengths with decreasing “$q$” value/doping concentration. Using different MMFs, both the red and blue spectral shifts have been observed experimentally. It has also been found that the SMS structure has higher sensitivity toward this critical wavelength. The study should find application in designing strain-insensitive high-sensitive temperature sensors or vice versa.

© 2009 IEEE

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2007

Y. O. Yilmaz, A. Mehta, W. S. Mohammed, E. G. Johnson, "Fiber-optic beam shaper based on multimode interference," Opt. Lett. 32, 3170-3172 (2007).

E. Li, "Sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic strain sensor based on interference of higher order modes in circular fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1266-1268 (2007).

Y. Liu, L. Wei, "Low-cost high-sensitivity strain and temperature sensing using graded-index multimode fibers," Appl. Opt. 46, 2516-2519 (2007).

2006

E. Li, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119-3 (2006).

2004

D. M. Mackie, A. W. Lee, "Slotted multimode-interference devices," Appl. Opt. 43, 6609-6619 (2004).

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, E. G. Johnson, "Wavelength tunable fiber lens based on multimode interference," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 469-477 (2004).

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, R. Kumar, "SMS fiber optic microbend sensor structures: Effect of the modal interference," Opt. Commun. 232, 239-244 (2004).

R. M. Ribeiro, M. M. Warneck, "An intrinsic graded-index multimode optical fibre strain-gauge," Sensors Actuators A. 111, 210-215 (2004).

2003

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, S. Antony C., P. Sharma, "Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures," Opt. Commun. 219, 215-219 (2003).

2002

2001

A. Kumar, N. K. Goel, R. K. Varshney, "Studies on a fewmode fiber-optic strain sensor based on LP01-LP02 mode interference," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 358-362 (2001).

1999

D. Donlagic, B. Culshaw, "Microbend structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1856-1868 (1999).

1997

1990

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 23-33 (1990).

1978

D. Marcuse, "Gaussian approximation of the fundamental modes of graded-index fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 103-109 (1978).

1970

P. J. B. Clarricoats, K. B. Chan, "Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders," Electron. Lett. 6, 694-695 (1970).

Appl. Opt.

Y. Liu, L. Wei, "Low-cost high-sensitivity strain and temperature sensing using graded-index multimode fibers," Appl. Opt. 46, 2516-2519 (2007).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Li, X. Wang, C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119-3 (2006).

Electron. Lett.

P. J. B. Clarricoats, K. B. Chan, "Electromagnetic-wave propagation along radially inhomogeneous dielectric cylinders," Electron. Lett. 6, 694-695 (1970).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

S.-Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, "Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 23-33 (1990).

A. Kumar, N. K. Goel, R. K. Varshney, "Studies on a fewmode fiber-optic strain sensor based on LP01-LP02 mode interference," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 358-362 (2001).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol.

D. Donlagic, B. Culshaw, "Microbend structure for use in distributed and quasi-distributed sensor systems based on selective launching and filtering of the modes in graded index multimode fiber," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1856-1868 (1999).

W. S. Mohammed, A. Mehta, E. G. Johnson, "Wavelength tunable fiber lens based on multimode interference," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 469-477 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

E. Li, "Sensitivity-enhanced fiber-optic strain sensor based on interference of higher order modes in circular fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1266-1268 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

D. Marcuse, "Gaussian approximation of the fundamental modes of graded-index fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 103-109 (1978).

Opt. Commun.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, S. Antony C., P. Sharma, "Transmission characteristics of SMS fiber optic sensor structures," Opt. Commun. 219, 215-219 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

A. Kumar, R. K. Varshney, R. Kumar, "SMS fiber optic microbend sensor structures: Effect of the modal interference," Opt. Commun. 232, 239-244 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Sensors Actuators A.

R. M. Ribeiro, M. M. Warneck, "An intrinsic graded-index multimode optical fibre strain-gauge," Sensors Actuators A. 111, 210-215 (2004).

Other

J. B. MacChesney, Personal Communication (2001) Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, N.J..

A. K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).

M. J. Adams, An Introduction to Optical Waveguides (Wiley, 1981).

C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, 1991).

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